—crossable, adj. —crossability, n./kraws, kros/, n., v., adj., crosser, crossest.n.1. a structure consisting essentially of an upright and a transverse piece, upon which persons were formerly put to death.2. any object, figure, or mark resembling a cross, as two intersecting lines.3. a mark resembling a cross, usually an X, made instead of a signature by a person unable to write.4. the Cross, the cross upon which Jesus died.5. a figure of the Cross as a Christian emblem, badge, etc.6. the Cross as the symbol of Christianity.7. a small cross with a human figure attached to it, as a representation of Jesus crucified; crucifix.8. a sign made with the right hand by tracing the figure of a cross in the air or by touching the foreheard, chest, and shoulders, as an act of devotion.9. a structure or monument in the form of a cross, set up for prayer, as a memorial, etc.10. any of various conventional representations or modifications of the Christian emblem used symbolically or for ornament, as in heraldry or art: a Latin cross; a Maltese cross.11. the crucifixion of Jesus as the culmination of His redemptive mission.12. any suffering endured for Jesus' sake.13. the teaching of redemption gained by Jesus' death.14. the Christian religion, or those who accept it; Christianity; Christendom.15. an opposition; thwarting; frustration.16. any misfortune; trouble.17. a crossing of animals or plants; a mixing of breeds.18. an animal, plant, breed, etc., produced by crossing; crossbreed.19. a person or thing that is intermediate in character between two others.20. Boxing. a punch thrown across and over the lead of an opponent.21. Slang. a contest the result of which is dishonestly arranged beforehand.22. a crossing.23. a place of crossing.24. Plumbing. a four-way joint or connection.25. Theat. an actor's movement from one area of a stage to another.26. Also called cross-trade. Stock Exchange. an arrangement for the simultaneous sale and purchase of a block of stock handled by a single broker.27. Mach. spider (def. 6b).29. bear one's cross, to accept trials or troubles patiently.30. take the cross, to make the vows of a crusader.v.t.31. to move, pass, or extend from one side to the other side of (a street, river, etc.).32. to put or draw (a line, lines, etc.) across.34. to mark with a cross.35. to lie or pass across; intersect.36. to meet and pass.37. to transport across something.38. to assist or guide (a person) across a street or intersection: The guard crossed the child at the traffic light.39. to place in the form of a cross or crosswise.40. Biol. to cause (members of different genera, species, breeds, varieties, or the like) to interbreed.41. to oppose openly; thwart; frustrate.42. Slang. to betray; double-cross.43. to make the sign of a cross upon or over, as in devotion: to cross oneself.44. Naut. to set (a yard) in proper position on a mast.45. Obs. to confront in a hostile manner.v.i.46. to lie or be athwart; intersect.47. to move, pass, or extend from one side or place to another: Cross at the intersection.48. to meet and pass.49. to interbreed.50. Theat. to move from one side of the stage to the other, esp. by passing downstage of another actor.54. cross over,a. Biol. (of a chromosome segment) to undergo crossing over.b. to switch allegiance, as from one political party to another.c. to change successfully from one field of endeavor, genre, etc., to another: to cross over from jazz to rock.d. Also, cross over to the other side. to die; pass away.56. cross up,a. to change arrangements made with; deceive: He crossed me up after we had agreed to tell the police the same story.b. to confuse: I was supposed to meet him at the station, but got crossed up.adj.57. angry and annoyed; ill-humored; snappish: Don't be cross with me.58. lying or passing crosswise or across each other; athwart; transverse: cross timbers.59. involving a reciprocal action, interchange, or the like: a cross-endorsement of political candidates; cross-marketing of related services.60. contrary; opposite: They were at cross purposes with each other.61. adverse; unfavorable.62. crossbred; hybrid.[bef. 1000; ME, late OE cros < ON kross < OIr cros ( < British Celtic) < L crux; see CRUX]Syn. 31, 35. traverse, span, bridge. 41. baffle, foil, contradict. 57. petulant, fractious, irascible, waspish, crabbed, churlish, sulky, cantankerous, cranky, ill-tempered, impatient, irritable, fretful, touchy, testy. CROSS, ILL-NATURED, PEEVISH, SULLEN refer to being in a bad mood or ill temper. CROSS means temporarily in an irritable or fretful state, and somewhat angry: a cross reply.ILL-NATURED implies a more permanent condition, without definite cause, and means unpleasant, unkind, inclined to snarl or be spiteful: an ill-natured dog; ill-natured spite. PEEVISH means complaining and snappish: a peevish child. SULLEN suggests a kind of glowering silent gloominess and means refusing to speak because of bad humor, anger, or a sense of injury or resentment: sullen and vindictive.Ant. 41. aid. 57. good-natured, agreeable.
* * *IThere are four basic iconogaphic representations: the crux quadrata, or Greek cross, with four equal arms; the crux immissa, or Latin cross, with a base stem longer than the other arms; the crux commissa (St. Anthony's cross), resembling the Greek letter tau (T); and the crux decussataa (St. Andrew's cross), resembling the Roman numeral 10 (X). Tradition holds that the crux immissa was used for Christ's crucifixion. Coptic Christians used the ancient Egyptian ankh. Displaying the cross was not common before Constantine I abolished crucifixion in the 4th century. A crucifix shows Christ's figure on a cross and is typical of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Making the sign of the cross with the hand may be a profession of faith, prayer, dedication, or benediction.II(as used in expressions)cross country runningcross country skiingcross fertilizationJohn of the Cross SaintInternational Red CrossInternational Movement of the Red Cross and Red CrescentEarth crossing asteroid
* * *▪ religious symbolthe principal symbol of the Christian religion, recalling the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the redeeming benefits of his Passion and death. The cross is thus a sign both of Christ himself and of the faith of Christians. In ceremonial usage, making a sign of the cross (cross, sign of the) may be, according to the context, an act of profession of faith, a prayer, a dedication, or a benediction.There are four basic types of iconographic representations of the cross: the crux quadrata, or Greek cross, with four equal arms; the crux immissa, or Latin cross, whose base stem is longer than the other three arms; the crux commissa, in the form of the Greek letter tau, sometimes called St. Anthony's cross; and crux decussata, named from the Roman decussis, or symbol of the numeral 10, also known as St. Andrew's cross. Tradition favours the crux immissa as that on which Christ died, but some believe that it was a crux commissa. The many variations and ornamentations of processional, altar, and heraldic crosses, of carved and painted crosses in churches, graveyards, and elsewhere, are developments of these four types.Cross forms were used as symbols, religious or otherwise, long before the Christian Era, but it is not always clear whether they were simply marks of identification or possession or were significant for belief and worship. Two pre-Christian cross forms have had some vogue in Christian usage. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol of life—the ankh, a tau cross surmounted by a loop and known as crux ansata—was adopted and extensively used on Coptic Christian monuments. The swastika, called crux gammata, composed of four Greek capitals of the letter gamma, is marked on many early Christian tombs as a veiled symbol of the cross.Before the time of the emperor Constantine (Constantine I) in the 4th century, Christians were extremely reticent about portraying the cross because too open a display of it might expose them to ridicule or danger. After Constantine converted to Christianity, he abolished crucifixion as a death penalty and promoted, as symbols of the Christian faith, both the cross and the chi-rho monogram of the name of Christ. The symbols became immensely popular in Christian art and funerary monuments from c. 350.For several centuries after Constantine, Christian devotion to the cross centred on the victory of Christ over the powers of evil and death, and realistic portrayal of his suffering was avoided. The earliest crucifixes (crosses containing a representation of Christ) depict Christ alive, with eyes open and arms extended, his Godhead manifest, even though he is pierced and dead in his manhood. By the 9th century, however, artists began to stress the realistic aspects of Christ's suffering and death. Subsequently, Western portrayals of the Crucifixion, whether painted or carved, exhibited an increasing finesse in the suggestion of pain and agony. Romanesque crucifixes often show a royal crown upon Christ's head, but later Gothic types replaced it with a crown of thorns. In the 20th century a new emphasis emerged in Roman Catholicism, especially for crucifixes in liturgical settings. Christ on the cross is crowned and vested as a king and priest, and the marks of his suffering are much less prominent.After the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, the Lutherans (Lutheranism) generally retained the ornamental and ceremonial use of the cross. The Reformed churches (Reformed church), however, resisted such use of the cross until the 20th century, when ornamental crosses on church buildings and on communion tables began to appear. The Church of England (England, Church of) retained the ceremonial signing with the cross in the rite of Baptism. Since the mid-19th century, Anglican (Anglicanism) churches have witnessed a revival of the use of the cross. The crucifix, however, is almost entirely confined to private devotional use. See also True Cross; crucifixion.
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