- Ciceronian period
▪ ancient Roman literaturefirst great age of Latin literature, from approximately 70 to 43 BC; together with the following Augustan Age (q.v.), it forms the Golden Age (q.v.) of Latin literature. The political and literary scene was dominated by Cicero (Cicero, Marcus Tullius) (q.v.), a statesman, orator, poet, critic, and philosopher who perfected the Latin language as a literary medium, expressing abstract and complicated thoughts with clarity and creating the important quantitative prose rhythm. Cicero's influence on Latin prose was so great that subsequent prose, not only in Latin but in later vernacular languages up to the 19th century, was either a reaction against or a return to his style. Other outstanding figures of the Ciceronian period are Julius Caesar, notable for political oratory and vivid military narratives; Marcus Terentius Varro, who wrote on topics as varied as farming and the Latin language; and Sallust, who opposed Cicero's style and espoused one later imitated by Seneca, Tacitus, and Juvenal. Among Ciceronian poets are Catullus, the first master of the Latin love lyric, and Lucretius (q.v.), who contemplated the origins of the universe and the scientific and philosophical laws that govern it in the long didactic poem De rerum natura (“On the Nature of Things”).
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