Some properties of the carbon group elements

Some properties of the carbon group elements

Table
Some properties of the carbon group elements
carbon silicon
atomic number 6 14
atomic weight 12.011 28.086
colour of element colourless (diamond [D]), black (graphite [G]) gray
melting point (°C) >3,500 (D) 1,420
boiling point (°C) 4,827 (D) 2,355
density (grams per cubic centimetre) 3.51 (D), 2.25 (G) 2.33 (25 °C)
oxidation states −4, (+2), +4 −4, (+2), +4
mass number of most common isotopes (terrestrial abundance, percent) 12 (98.89), 13 (1.11) 28 (92.21), 29 (4.70), 30 (3.09)
radioactive isotopes (mass numbers) 10, 11, 14, 15, 16 25–27, 31, 32
heat of fusion (kilocalories per gram atom) 11.1
heat of vaporization (kilocalories per gram atom) 170 (G) 71
heat of sublimation (kilocalories per gram atom) 170 85
heat capacity (calories per mole °C) 1.462 (D), 2.038 (G) 5.086 (0–100 °C)
critical temperature (°C) about 4,920
critical pressure (atmospheres) 1,450
electrical resistivity (microhm-centimetres) 1,375.0 10
hardness (Mohs' scale) 10 (D) 0.5–1.5 (G) 7
crystal structure cubic (D) hexagonal (G) cubic (diamond)
radius
●   covalent (angstroms)
0.772 1.17
●   ionic (angstroms)
2.60 (−4 ion), 0.16 (+4 ion) 2.71 (−4 ion), 0.42 (+4 ion)
ionization energy (kilocalories per gram atom)
first 261 189
second 564 378
third 1,103 773
fourth 1,486 1,040
electronegativity
(Sanderson) 2.47 1.74
(Pauling) 2.5 1.8
germanium tin lead
atomic number 32 50 82
atomic weight 72.59 118.69 207.19
colour of element white metallic white metallic (beta), gray (alpha) bluish-white metallic
melting point (°C) 937.4 231.9 (alpha) 327.5
boiling point (°C) 2,830 2,270 (alpha) 1,744
density (grams per cubic centimetre)
liquid 6.97 (231.9 °C) 10.51 (400 °C)
solid 5.323 (25 °C) 5.75 (alpha), 7.28 (beta) 11.35 (20 °C)
oxidation states −4, +2, +4 (−4), +2, +4 (−4), +2, +4
mass number of most common isotopes (terrestrial abundance, percent) 70 (20.53), 72 (27.43), 73 (7.76), 74 (36.54), 76 (7.76) 112 (0.96), 114 (0.66), 115 (0.35), 116 (14.3), 117 (7.61), 118 (24.03), 119 (8.58), 120 (32.85), 122 (4.72), 124 (5.94) 204 (1.48), 206 (23.6), 207 (22.6), 208 (52.3)
radioactive isotopes (mass numbers) 65–69, 71, 75, 77, 78 108–111, 113, 121, 123, 125–128 194–203, 205, 209–214
heat of fusion (kilocalories per gram atom) 7.3 1.69 1.21
heat of vaporization (kilocalories per gram atom) 78 61.8 42.3
heat of sublimation (kilocalories per gram atom) 78 47.5
heat capacity (calories per mole °C) 5.372 6.29 (25 °C) 6.53 (15–327.5 °C)
electrical resistivity (microhm-centimetres) 11 20.648
hardness (Mohs' scale) 6 1.5–1.8 1.5
crystal structure cubic (diamond) cubic (diamond, alpha) tetragonal (beta) close-packed, metallic
radius
●   covalent (angstroms)
1.22 1.40
●   metallic (angstroms)
1.22 1.40 1.54
●   ionic (angstroms)
2.72 (−4 ion), 0.73 (+2 ion), 0.53 (+4 ion) 2.94 (−4 ion), 0.93 (+2 ion), 0.71 (+4 ion) 1.20 (+2 ion), 0.84 (+4 ion)
ionization energy (kilocalories per gram atom)
first 184 171 172
second 369 339 348
third 791 705 738
fourth 1,053 941 (977)
electronegativity
(Sanderson) 2.31 2.02 2.01
(Pauling) 1.8 1.8 1.8
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Universalium. 2010.

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