- sacred kingship
▪ religious and political conceptIntroductionreligious and political concept by which a ruler is seen as an incarnation, manifestation, mediator, or agent of the sacred or holy (the transcendent or supernatural realm). The concept originated in prehistoric times, but it continues to exert a recognizable influence in the modern world. At one time, when religion was totally connected with the whole existence of the individual as well as that of the community and when kingdoms were in varying degrees connected with religious powers or religious institutions, there could be no kingdom that was not in some sense sacral.Among the many possible kinds of sacral kingdoms, there was a special type in which the king was regarded and revered as a god—the god-kingdom, a polity of which there were three forms: preliminary, primary, and secondary. The preliminary form exists in cultures in which the chieftain is regarded as divine. The primary form was the god-kingdom of the large empires of the ancient Middle East and East Asia, of ancient Iran, and of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America. The secondary form occurred in the Persian, Hellenistic (Greco-Roman cultural), and European empires. Between these three forms there are many transitional types.Principal schools of interpretationThe phenomenon of sacred kingship was known and described in ancient times by various travelers, including Aristotle in the 4th century BC and the 1st-century-BC Greek geographers and historians Strabo and Diodorus Siculus. The study of sacred kingship, however, was introduced when the British anthropologist Sir James Frazer (Frazer, Sir James George) published The Golden Bough (1890–1915). Taking his comprehensive material from ethnological reports and studies, Frazer concentrated on the preliminary stage. With the discovery of texts in cuneiform writing in Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, a new stage of research began. Called Pan-Babylonism by some scholars, the theories based on the results of these discoveries placed the god-kingdom of the ancient Middle East in the foreground.Building on the thesis of Pan-Babylonism that a homogeneous Middle Eastern culture existed and on the theories of cult as a ritual drama, the so-called British and Scandinavian cult-historical schools maintained that the king, as the personified god, played the main role in the overall cultural pattern. The English branch of this school (the “myth and ritual school”) concentrated on anthropological and folklore studies. The Scandinavian branch (the “Uppsala school”) concentrated on Semitic philological, cultural, and history-of-religions studies. It was represented in the latter part of the 20th century by Swedish historians of religion who theorized that, for the entire ancient Middle East, certain cult patterns existed and that behind those cult patterns lay the sacred-king ideology.Rejecting the cult-historical school theory of an unchanging cult pattern and an unchanging sacred-king ideology, many scholars in the latter part of the 20th century tended to emphasize individual research of case histories. The fundamental differences between the kingdom ideology in Egypt and that in Mesopotamia have been investigated by historians, and questions concerning sacred kingship in the Old Testament have been explored by Old Testament scholars. One result of such scholarly research is the realization that the theory and practice of sacred kingship—in a history extending over thousands of years—has undergone immense changes and, thus, because of these widespread and extensive differences, all generalizations and categorizations are difficult to maintain. Though there may be an amazing correspondence among numerous individual phenomena, each individual sacral form of government can be explained only in its own historical, social, and religious context.Status and functionsThe sacred status of kings, leaders, and chieftainsBasic to an understanding of sacred kingship is a recognition that the exercise of power of one person (monarchy) over other persons or over a community (local, regional, or imperial) in early times was general and not divided. Power could be exercised by only one person—one who simultaneously had the necessary physical (individual and corporate) and spiritual (psychic) strength and influence—over both people and objects. Because he was ruler over a community, the king's power extended to everything pertaining to the life of the community. Only gradually did a division of these powers develop.The sacral status of the ruler differs in form and origins. Three main forms can be distinguished: (1) the possessor of supernatural power, (2) the divine or semidivine king, and (3) the agent of the sacred.The possessor of supernatural power (supernaturalism)The ruler may be viewed as the possessor of supernatural power—both beneficial and malevolent—needed to maintain the welfare and order of the community and to avert danger and damage. In preliterate societies he represents the life force of the tribe, in which worldly and spiritual or political and religious spheres are not distinguished. Concentrated in the chief is the common inheritance of the magical (magic) power of the community, and his authority is based solely on the possession and exercise of this supernatural power. The impact and comprehensiveness of such power wielded by a chief, for example, reaches into all areas of life of the tribe: provision of food, fertility, weather, all forms of communal life, and protection against enemies and misfortune. Because the supernatural (magical) power of the chief is identical with his own life force, the chief (or king) of such a society is not allowed to have any physical defects. With the dwindling of his own physical powers (illness, graying of hair, and loss of teeth), his own power to maintain and secure the common welfare and his own ability to rule are believed to be correspondingly diminished.This form of sacral status is found mainly among rulers over one tribe (or several)—he may be a chief, medicine man, shaman (shamanism), or king (as, for example, a rainmaker-king in Africa)—in which a fixed definition or limitation of such functions is not possible.The divine or semidivine kingIn some societies, especially in ancient kingdoms or empires, the king was regarded as a god or identified with some god. In early Egypt (Egyptian religion) he was identified with the sky god (Horus) and with the sun god (Re, Amon, or Aton). Similar identifications were made in early China and early Erech in Mesopotamia. In the Turin Papyrus (a list of kings written c. 13th–12th centuries BC), the sun god Re is viewed as the first king of Egypt and the prototype of the pharaoh (the god-king). The symbol (religious symbolism and iconography) of the sun circle, one of the most prevalent artistic representations of the sacred king, and the practice of addressing the king as “my sun” are well depicted in rock reliefs and inscriptions in areas ruled by the Hittite kings. The Persian king was regarded as the incarnation of the sun god or of the moon god. In addition to sky or sun deities, the sacred king also has been identified with other gods: the town god (Mesopotamia (Mesopotamian religion)), the gods of the country, the god of the storm, and the weather god. Generally, however, the king was not identified with a specific god but rather was regarded as himself a god. As the incarnation of all that is divine, the Egyptian pharaoh was addressed simultaneously in inscriptions as Aton, Horus, and Re. Significant for Egyptian royal theology was the doctrine of the god-kingdom spanning two generations; each king ruled as King Horus and became Osiris (the father of Horus, a fertility god and later god of the dead) after his death.A broader foundation for the divinity of the king is the view of the king as the son of a god, which can take on different forms. The first king has been regarded as a god and his successors as sons of the god in a number of societies—in Africa, Polynesia, Japan (where the emperor, until the end of World War II, was revered as a descendant of the sun goddess), Peru (where the inca, or ruler, was believed to be a descendant of the sun god), Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Canaan. Because he personifies the divine national hero (as among the Shilluk in Africa), the king can demand divine status, a practice that was taken up in the Greco-Roman world by Alexander the Great and by the Roman emperors. When a king who has been sired by a god or when a god who takes on the external form of the living king approaches his queen, he begets the future king—the queen is thus called the mother of God. An essentially different foundation is the king's divine sonship through adoption, as, for example, in the legend of King Sargon of Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia. The adoption of the crown prince by a god is often part of the coronation ritual, especially in Mesopotamia: the god declares the king as his son when he ascends the throne.An especially frequent expression of the relationship of the king to divinity in Egypt and Mesopotamia was that of the king as a god's image. In Egypt the king—addressed by the god as “my living image on earth”—is shown in the likeness of Re, Aton, Amon, or Horus. In Mesopotamia this kind of description was rare.The myth of divine ancestry, such as that of Romulus, one of the legendary founders of Rome, in many places served to legitimatize the claims of the king. Unusual natural phenomena, such as an especially bright star, are sometimes connected with the birth of a divine king.The conception and practice of making a king divine after his death are very old and widespread. Probably connected with ancestor worship, deification is practiced most often when the living king, although connected with gods, is not regarded as a god in the fullest sense. Only after his death does he become god. Among the Hittites, for example, the expression “the king becomes a god” meant that the king had died.The king as the principal agent of the sacredIn addition to the conception of a king as the incarnation of supernatural power and the possible equality of the king with the divinity, there is also a widespread belief that the king is the executive agent of a god. As the servant of a god, he carries out the work of the god on earth. The divine character of this form of sacred kingship is connected not so much with the individual king as with the institution of kingship. In this emphasis on the institution of kingship lies the difference between kingship in Mesopotamia and Egypt and in India and China. The institution was emphasized in Mesopotamia and China. Sharp distinctions cannot be drawn between the different conceptions of the relationship of a god to kingship. Despite all the different expressions of kingship in the history of Mesopotamia (especially among the empires of Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria), there nevertheless was a continuous theme: the real lord of the city, the country, or the state remains the god, and the king remains in a subservient relationship to him. Even when the king possessed or disposed divine power and had sacral character and sacral duties, he remained subordinate to the god who selected him and put him into his regal position. The king had a mediating position between the gods and man, especially in his significance for the cult (thus, Sargon of Akkad is first described in inscriptions as deputy of Ishtar). The king also had a similar status as agent in Mongolia, where it was believed that the king came from heaven and was enthroned by God to carry out his will.The king as bringer of blessed powerThe usual function of a sacred king is to bring blessings to his people and area of control. Because he has a supernatural power over the life and welfare of the tribe, the chief or king is believed to influence the fertility of the soil, cattle, and human beings but mostly the coming of rain (rainmaking). He has power over the forces of nature. Where rain is vitally necessary for the welfare and continuity of a people, the king can be described primarily in terms of this special function. Protection against evil of all sorts also is important for the welfare of the country. If the tribe or the country is beset by misfortune, epidemic, starvation, bad harvests, or floods, the king can be held responsible. Sometimes the king is believed to have the power to heal sickness by means of touch or contact with his garment.The function of the king as bringer of good fortune is especially prevalent in Africa, but it also has been observed in Polynesia, Scandinavia, and ancient Greece. The power to bring good fortune is also an aspect of sacral kingship in such cultures as those of India, Iran, China, Japan, pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Canaan. The difference between Egypt and Mesopotamia is significant: in Egypt the pharaoh was the direct dispenser of all good fortune in the country, whereas in Mesopotamia the king mediated for good fortune through cultic speeches and actions.The function of the king as dispenser of good fortune has had an amazingly long influence: the English king was believed to have had healing power over a special disease (the king's evil) until the time of the Stuarts in the 17th century, and until the 20th century a folklore belief persisted in Germany that the ruler has influence over the weather (“emperor weather”). Words sometimes used to symbolize (religious symbolism and iconography) the king as the wielder of beneficial influence are gardener, fisherman, and shepherd.The king as shepherdAn Egyptian pharaoh once said of himself: “He made me the shepherd of this country.” In Mesopotamia the description of the king as a shepherd was quite frequent; in the 3rd millennium BC the term was applied to Sumerian city princes (e.g., Lugalbanda in the 1st dynasty of Uruk [Erech]). The function of the king as shepherd also has been noted in India. The image of the shepherd expresses the most important functions of the king—he provides his people with food; he leads them and protects them from dangers and, at the same time, shows his superiority over them. Christ's (Jesus Christ) description of himself in the New Testament as the “good shepherd” is, in a sense, a description of his official position in the Christian church, which also describes him as king, prince of peace, and Lord.The king as judgeFrom earliest times, in addition to other functions, the chief was the judge of his tribe; he personified the protection that the community provided for the individual. Providing for a balance of power in the community, mediating quarrels, and protecting individual rights, the chief or king was the lawgiver and the highest administrator for all community affairs. The ensi, the lawgiver and the highest judicial authority in the Sumerian (Sumer) city-state, was responsible for order. In Egypt (Egyptian religion) the king was the highest judge, the guarantor of all public order, the lord over life and death. Early Egypt and India developed a high degree of justice that described the activities of the king as maʿat in Egypt and dharma in India. Both conceptions may be expressed as “justice” or “order” but actually are more comprehensive. Because the king preserves the god-given world order, the task of being just has been viewed as one of his fundamental functions. The pharaoh of Egypt and the emperor of China were believed to be responsible for the maintenance of cosmic as well as social order.The king as warlordBelief in the supernatural power of the ruler caused him to be viewed as the protector of his tribe or his people from enemies. On the one hand, he was the chief warlord and decided on questions of war and peace (as in ancient Sumer). The Egyptian pharaoh was represented, in his divine capacity as warrior, in larger-than-life dimensions. He alone was regarded as the one who triumphed over the enemy. On the other hand, there was the concept that the king, because of his sacral character, should not personally take part in war. These concepts existed, for example, among the Persian kings.Religious duties quite often are connected with the office of chieftain, who is also priest or seer and rainmaker—all in one. Correspondingly, in nontribal societies, cultic functions belong to the office of the king. In the 3rd dynasty of Uruk, Lugalzaggisi is described as king of the country, priest of the god Anu (the god of the heavens), and prophet of Nisaba (goddess of grasses and writing).When a division of functions evolved, the intrinsically royal priestly and other cultic functions were transferred to priests, seers, and other servants of the cult; the old concept of the king as priest, however, survived in some fashion for thousands of years. The Egyptian king was the chief priest of the land and the superior of all priests and other cult functionaries. In many images he is portrayed as presiding over the great festivals and bringing offerings to the gods. Later priests carried out their functions as his representative. In Mesopotamia the king was viewed as the cultic mediator between god and man. As head of all of the priests of the country, he had important cultic functions at the New Year's festival. In critical situations, the king might issue an oracle of blessing; through him the land would be promised salvation, which was often accompanied by the words, “Fear not!” The Persian (Iranian religion) king performed the sacrifice at the horse offering and was also the “guardian of the fire.” In all questions of religion he was the highest authority; he was also the most cultivated of the magicians. The king in Ugarit (in Canaan) also carried out priestly functions and as prophet was the receiver of revelations. Like other ancient Middle Eastern monarchs, the Hittite king was the chief priest.The relationship between sacred kingship and priestly cultic functions has extended over widespread geographic areas and historical eras: East Asia, China, Japan, India, Europe (among the Germanic and Scandinavian kings), Africa (African religions) (in the great empires), and Madagascar. Sometimes the division of functions brought about a transfer of the royal title to those who carried out cultic functions. In Africa from the earliest times there was a type of king who was called lord of the earth; he originally combined political and cultic functions but, with changing times, retained only the cultic ones. The strict separation of the priestly office from that of the king, as in India, where king and priest belong to different castes—Kshatriya and Brahman, respectively—is an unusual exception, however.The king may be the recipient of a direct revelation of the will of a god. Thus, in Egypt the pharaoh received a divine oracle through dreams in the temple (a practice known as incubation). In Mesopotamia the duty of the king to ascertain the will of the gods was more strongly emphasized; a directive of the gods could result from omens, dreams, or reading the entrails of offerings. All major undertakings of the king were dependent on directives of the god, who was to be consulted in advance. A direct divine revelation to a king is related in the Hebrew Bible in I Kings, chapter 3, which tells of a dream of the 10th-century-BC Israelite Solomon in which he received the promise of the gift of wisdom. Likewise in Genesis, chapter 41, Yahweh, god of the Hebrews, gives the pharaoh a directive in a dream.The king as the centre of ruler cultsAlthough a pharaonic cult occasionally existed in Egypt, the ruler cult differs entirely from sacred kingship because the former came into being from political impulses. The ruler cult, generally developed in a country or empire with many peoples and many religions, was one of the ruler's means of power. Syncretism (religious syncretism), the fusing of various beliefs and practices, often succeeded in bringing together completely different religious and nonreligious motives. Alexander the Great (who established an empire of many peoples and religions), for example, revealed a conscious effort at continuity with the Egyptian kingdom, inasmuch as the oracle of the Egyptian god Amon at Sīwah designated him as the son of Amon and thus the successor of the pharaohs. Among the diadochoi (successors to Alexander) of the first generation, the ruler cult remained limited, but, under Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt (reigned 285–246 BC), it became an established institution that was connected with the deified Alexander. When the ruler cult was carried over to Rome, the emperor Augustus (reigned 27 BC–AD 14) allowed it to be practiced only in the east in connection with the worship of the goddess Roma—though he allowed it to be pursued with fewer restrictions in the newly conquered western provinces; the adaptation of honouring the divine Caesar (or emperor of Rome) soon became, however, an important expression of the unity of the empire. Serious resistance to the imperial cult was encountered only among the two radical monotheistic religions: Judaism (e.g., against Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Syria in the mid-2nd century BC) and Christianity. The Hellenistic and Roman ruler cults never generated a strong religious movement. The sacrifices brought to the king (emperor) date to the ancient custom of bringing tribute to the king (or chief). From this practice, the custom of bringing offerings to the deceased king developed.Regal ceremoniesModes of selection and successionIn the beginning, succession to rulership was not necessarily connected with the sacral kingship; the sacral king also could be elected or, through a power struggle, also could receive a divine, magical, or supernatural anointment. If the firstborn son of the king was not stipulated to succeed him or if the king left no children, severe struggles for the succession often occurred, generally resulting in a change of dynasty. The death of a king often was kept secret until the succession was assured, because of potential danger to the people and country. To counteract problems of succession, there were rituals to secure the continuity of the sacral power. In ancient cultures the successor of the dead chief was brought into physical connection with his predecessor, his utensils, or his clothing—he had to stay, for example, in the home of the dead chief and use his utensils. The funeral of the dead king took place after the new king was established in his office or just before his coronation (as in Egypt). Efforts to secure the succession show high regulatory standards; in Egypt a complicated succession theology linked the new and old king as Osiris and Horus. During the lifetime of his father, the crown prince could be designated as coregent. The designation of the successor often came through an oracle, a sign, or some other manifestation of the word of the god; Thutmose III of Egypt (reigned 1504–1450 BC), for example, reported how he was designated to the succession through the oracle of the god Amon. In ancient Iran, after an interregnum, the election of the king took place through an omen. The king was chosen by the god; sometimes he was described as divinely predestined in the womb of his mother as the ruler.Forms and types of sacred legitimation of kingsThe coronation or ascent to the throne by a king is an official act that most clearly shows the sacral character of the kingdom. Until the 20th century two characteristics in the coronations of kings and emperors remained: through ascent to the throne, the king is placed higher than other men, and the act of accession is connected with supernatural powers. With this action a new era begins. In Egypt and Mesopotamia two acts marked the beginning of the government of the new ruler. First, upon the old ruler's death, the crown prince took control of the government, and soon thereafter he established his accession in a festive celebration. The coronation, which was viewed as a cosmic new beginning, generally had to coincide with a new beginning in nature, such as the New Year's festival. The most important initial actions of sacred kingship—the ascent to the throne and coronation with proper insignia and king's robes—have remained the same in many modern cultures. The throne, crown, headdress, garment (as sign of dignity), and sceptre (the staff through which the rule is carried out) were originally believed to contain the power through which the king ruled. The star garment of the Persian king symbolized his world rulership, as did the feather mantle of the kings of Hawaii. In many cultures the throne, the crown, and the sceptre are viewed as divine and identified with gods and goddesses. This view was especially expressed in the Egyptian royal theology: in the hymnal prayer during coronations, the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt were addressed as goddesses of the red and white crown by the king. In India the throne personified the kingdom. Sometimes the throne that a new king ascends is viewed as the throne of the god. The Egyptian queen Hatshepsut, for example, was announced by Horus: “You have appeared on the throne of Horus.” On many Egyptian images the king sits on the throne, and the god is at his side holding a hand over the king.In becoming someone else (a god), the king receives a new name, a throne name. Throne names are known in Africa, Mesopotamia, and Egypt (where the five throne names comprise the whole king theology: birth name, royal name, hawk name, serpent name, and a name that designates the king as heir of the power of the gods of the stars). In Iran, for example, the king is proclaimed by his royal name as world ruler. Immediately upon the proclamation of the new status of the king and his royal name, the subject people generally evoke a jubilant shout, such as “Long live the king.” An African variety of a response to the proclamation is “He is our corn and our shield,” which shows the importance of the king for his people. Another response to the proclamation is a prayer for the king: African and Polynesian prayers; Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and Israelite psalms; and hymns, such as the British hymn “God Save the King.”The act of adoration of a king is based on the throne rite, which is known only in areas having national kings. Though ascent to the throne and coronation with investiture are worldwide, there are many other rituals connected with sacred kingship. Among these are the anointment of the kings in Israel, India, and Iran, which originated as a ritual that gave strength to the recipient; pseudo-fights (sham battles), from which the king emerges as victor; ritual cleansing; and ritual meals. The survival of elements of the sacred kingship in the Christian West is especially depicted in coronation rites. In Early Christian art Christ (Jesus Christ) is shown as kingly ruler on his throne with a royal court; he is emperor and universal ruler. Sacred kingship also survived in the papacy, as well as in the Holy Roman Empire (until the words Holy Roman were dropped in 1806). In the papacy, for example, the court ceremonies employ forms of address that go back to the imperial language of ancient sacred kingdoms: “Holy Father” or “Holiness.”Ritual roles prescribed for kings in public or state functionsMany and various rituals express the concept that in the chief or king is concentrated the well-being of the country. At the order of a god, a Mesopotamian king might become involved in war; thus, his loot was placed before the god in the temple. If the king made a decision as judge, it was because of his unique wisdom as king. If he mediated a quarrel, the parties recognized his supreme power. The king acted to protect his land against the enemy; after his accession, in some areas, the king shot four arrows to the cardinal directions of the compass. In Africa and Egypt, for example, he then said: “I am shooting down the nations, to overcome them.” He acted to ensure fertility and to distribute growth power when he started sowing corn, the seed of the tribe. He also was regarded as the guardian of the hearth fire (e.g., in Africa and Rome).The king exercised an important function through his participation in the great festivals (feast), which were of utmost importance to the life of his people. In such festivals, various functions were differentiated: (1) priestly, as when the king presided over the sacrifices, said prayers, and gave the benediction, and (2) cultic participation, as when the king took part in the cult drama. The origin of the cult drama as a spontaneous event is still evident—for example, among the Asante in Africa—but it had its fullest expression in Mesopotamia and Egypt. In the Sed festival in Egypt the king, as ruler, renewed his rulership over the whole world. In the New Year's festival (New Year festival) his ascent to the throne was renewed; and at the festival of Min, the god of life force and reproduction, the king played a significant role.In Mesopotamia, festivals originating in cultic drama had great importance, especially the Babylonian New Year's festival. The events of the epic Enuma elish, which describes the sun god Marduk's (Marduk) victory over the powers of chaos and the resulting creation of the universe, were re-created in the cultic drama of the New Year's festival, in which the king represented Marduk, the victor and creator. Another cult drama represented the death and resurrection of the god of vegetation, in which the participants in mourning processions searched for the vanished god (represented by the king) and rejoiced at his triumphant return. Yet another Mesopotamian cult drama was the sacred marriage that the god Dumuzi (Tammuz) celebrated with the goddess Innana (Ishtar). In the “holy wedding” the king and a priestess represented the god and the goddess, and through their sexual union the forces of growth and fertility in nature were renewed. These cult dramas originated in early prehistory, when gods were identified with the forces of nature and the cultic actions were understood as exerting direct influences on nature. At the Persian New Year's festival the king appeared as a killer of the dragon, whose rule was identified with the dry season.The theory of the kingship in which the king occupied the position of mediator between people and gods also implies that the king may have to atone and suffer for the people of the cult. Under such a theory the absolution and reinstatement of the king meant the renewal of land and people. Perhaps behind this theory was a ritual similar to that found among African coronations of prehistory (as, for example, among the Asante) in which the king was beaten by priests before his installation.The special status of the sacral king necessarily also influences his private life. In order to keep the supernatural force dwelling within him, the king had to observe a number of regulations and taboos (taboo) in the details of his daily life. To this belongs temporary separation—in some cases, the king lived completely separated (e.g., in Africa). The king often appeared only for audiences, on great festivals or special occasions—sometimes veiled (as in Iran) or with a mask. There also have been special food taboos (dietary law): he was not allowed to eat certain foods or may have had to drink only from a certain well. The custom of the king taking his meals alone is widespread. The isolation-separation theme in sacred kingship also appears in court ceremonials: the king must be addressed only from a certain measured distance; a person approaching the king must kneel; if the king is encountered, the head of the subject must be covered with the hands (as in Iran); the king must not be touched; and he must not touch the ground. Inasmuch as the king is filled with supernatural power, everything he touches can take on some of that power (as in Tahiti). Such proscriptions and taboos for the private life of the king are especially evident in Africa but also occur in Polynesia and Micronesia, East Asia, and the ancient Middle East. The divine or superhuman character pertained not only to the king but also, in lesser measure, to his family. The king's consecration could involve ritual incest. The participation of the family in the sacral status of the king was evidenced in several places (e.g., Egypt) where, upon the death of the king or queen, members of the royal family and the court were killed or buried with them. Brother-sister marriages in some areas give evidence to this kind of royal ideology.When a king began to grow old, it was said in Africa: “The grass is fading.” To preserve the growth and well-being of the land, it was necessary to kill the aging king so that his power could be transferred to a successor. The compulsory killing of the king was widespread among many of the non-Semitic peoples in northern Africa; and among some peoples the killing of the king occurred after a specified period of time and was integrated into the cosmic ritualistic rhythm. The real meaning of the killing of the king showed itself in rituals in which the blood of the murdered king is mixed with the seed corn, which then became especially fertile.Claus Westermann Ed.Additional ReadingJames George Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3rd ed., 12 vol. (1911–15, reprinted 1990), also available in an abridged ed., The New Golden Bough (1959, reissued 1972), is the fundamental and classical work. Also significant is A.M. Hocart, Kingship (1927, reprinted 1969), which considers the apotheosis of the king for the oldest religions of humankind. General works are G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation (1938, reissued 1986; originally published in German, 1933); and Geo Widengren, “Das sakrales Königtum,” in his Religionsphänomenologie (1969), pp. 360–393. Also of interest is Lily Ross Taylor, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (1931, reprinted 1981). David Cannadine and Simon Price (eds.), Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies (1987), is a collection of historical and anthropological essays that examines ritual as a form of power and includes studies of several different civilizations.Studies from the English school are S.H. Hooke (ed.), Myth and Ritual: Essays on the Myth and Ritual of the Hebrews in Relation to the Culture Pattern of the Ancient East (1933), The Labyrinth: Further Studies in the Relation Between Myth and Ritual in the Ancient World (1935), and Myth, Ritual, and Kingship: Essays on the Theory and Practice of Kingship in the Ancient Near East and in Israel (1958). Studies from the Scandinavian school are found in Geo Widengren, Sakrales Königtum im Alten Testament und im Judentum (1955); S. Mowinkel, He That Cometh (1956), pp. 21–95; Ivan Engnell, Studies in Divine Kingship in the Ancient Near East, 2nd ed. (1967); and Aage Bentzen, King and Messiah, 2nd ed. (1970; originally published in German, 1948).Sacred kingship in Egypt is explored in Alexandre Moret, Du Caractère religieux de la royauté pharaonique (1902). Mesopotamia is the focus of René Labat, Le Caractère religieux de la royauté assyro-babylonienne (1939); and Thorkild Jacobsen, Toward the Image of Tammuz and Other Essays on Mesopotamian History and Culture (1970). Henri Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (1948, reissued 1978), an important exposition on Egypt and Mesopotamia, ushers in the new epoch of research. Discussion of sacred kingship in Canaan can be found in John Gray, “Canaanite Kingship in Theory and Practice,” Vetus Testamentum, 2:193–220 (1952). Works on Africa include Leo Frobenius, Erythräa: Länder und Zeiten des heiligen Königsmordes (1931); and Diedrich Westermann, Geschichte Afrikas (1952, reissued 1968), pp. 20–46. Texts examining sacred kingship in Israel are Jean de Fraine, L'Aspect religieux de la royauté israélite (1954); The Sacral Kingship (1959), papers from the eighth International Congress for the History of Religions; Karl-Heinz Bernhardt, Das Problem der altorientalischen Königsideologie im Alten Testament (1961); Martin Noth, “God, King, and Nation in the Old Testament,” in his The Laws in the Pentateuch and Other Studies (1966, reissued 1984; originally published in German, 2nd enlarged ed., 1960), pp. 145–178; Aubrey R. Johnson, Sacral Kingship in Ancient Israel, 2nd ed. (1967); H.H. Rowley, Worship in Ancient Israel: Its Forms and Meaning (1967, reissued 1976), pp. 186–202; J. Alberto Soggin, Das Königtum in Israel (1967); Baruch Halpern, The Constitution of the Monarchy in Israel (1981), with focus on the political processes by which the monarchy was governed; and Richard Harlin Lowery, The Reforming Kings: Cults and Society in First Temple Judah (1991), which analyzes the complex interaction of economics, politics, and religion in the emergence of the Jerusalem royal cult, and the reform of that cult by Hezekiah, Josiah, and the Deuteronomists.The Roman Catholic papacy represents the single most important attempt at the construction of a sacral monarchy in European civilization. Colin Morris, The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250 (1989), includes a good general introduction to the subject, as well as a thorough examination of Innocent III. Paolo Prodi, The Papal Prince: One Body and Two Souls: The Papal Monarchy in Early Modern Europe (1987), examines the interrelation of spiritual and temporal power in the ideology of papal absolutism. Papal claims to sacral kingship faced competition from secular rulers who saw themselves as the heirs of Christ's royal office. J.H. Burns, Lordship, Kingship, and Empire: The Idea of Monarchy, 1400–1525 (1992), examines the role of Christian theology in the development of monarchical ideology in Europe.Claus Westermann Ed.
* * *