- Paris I–XIII, Universities of
French Universités de Paris I à XIII,universities founded in 1970 under France's 1968 Orientation Act, reforming higher education. They replaced the former University of Paris, one of the archetypal European universities, founded about 1170.The medieval University of Paris grew out of the cathedral schools of Notre-Dame and, like most other medieval universities, was a kind of corporate company that included both professors and students. With papal support, Paris soon became the great transalpine centre of Christian orthodox theological teaching. At the end of the 13th and during the 14th centuries, it was the most celebrated teaching centre of all Christendom. Its famous professors included Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, Albertus Magnus, and Thomas Aquinas.The university was originally divided into four faculties: three “superior,” theology, canon law, and medicine; and one “inferior,” arts. In the faculty of arts, the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music) were taught together with general scientific, literary, and general culture. Aristotelian philosophy was an especially important field of study in the arts faculty. Each faculty was headed by a dean, and the dean of the faculty of arts had by the 14th century become the head of the collective university under the title of rector.Many colleges were built to accommodate the students. The most celebrated was the Sorbonne, founded by the theologian Robert de Sorbon (Sorbon, Robert de) about 1257. Because its halls were the scene of numerous theological disputations, the name Sorbonne became a popular term for the theological faculty of Paris.The University of Paris remained a spokesman for Roman Catholic (Roman Catholicism) orthodoxy, and its educational program, which was founded on scholastic dialectics, became rigidly fixed. As a result, the university made little contribution to the humanistic studies of the Renaissance, and the university subsequently declined under the impact of the Reformation and the ensuing Counter-Reformation. With the French Revolution (1789–99) and Napoleon's subsequent reorganization of many of France's institutions, the University of Paris became one of the academies of the newly created University of France. Among its several faculties were some that were later abandoned (e.g., theology in 1886), and others, such as science and pharmacy, that were new. Teaching at the university had by then become secular—that is, independent of political or religious doctrine.At mid-20th century (when the University of France, as a central organizing body, had given place to the Ministry of Public Instruction), the University of Paris had again become a preeminent scientific and intellectual centre. The most distinguished professors lectured there, and there were more than 600 professorial chairs. In May 1968 a protest initiated by students at the Sorbonne grew into a serious national crisis. This led to a major educational reform that decentralized schools and gave students greater participation in university administration.
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