Mitscherlich, Eilhardt

Mitscherlich, Eilhardt

▪ German chemist
born Jan. 17, 1794, Neuende, duchy of Oldenburg [Germany]
died Aug. 28, 1863, Berlin, Prussia

      German chemist who promulgated the theory of isomorphism, a relationship between crystalline structure and chemical composition.

      From 1818 to 1820 Mitscherlich worked in the Berlin laboratory of the German botanist Heinrich F. Link, where he first undertook the study of arsenates and phosphates. In 1819 he discovered from this study that compounds with similar composition often have the same crystalline structure. In 1821 he became professor of chemistry at the University of Berlin. He continued his studies of isomorphism and also made other important discoveries, including selenic acid (1827) and the monoclinic crystal form of sulfur (1823). He also named benzene, became the first to synthesize nitrobenzene in 1832, and was one of the first to recognize contact action, now known as catalytic action.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Mitscherlich , Eilhardt — (1794–1863) German chemist Mitscherlich, who was born at Neuende in Germany, studied oriental languages at Heidelberg and Berlin. He then turned to the study of medicine at Göttingen in 1817, where he became interested in crystallography. For two …   Scientists

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  • Berzelius, Jöns Jacob — ▪ Swedish chemist Introduction born August 20, 1779, near Linköping, Sweden died August 7, 1848, Stockholm  one of the founders of modern chemistry. He is especially noted for his determination of atomic weights (atomic weight), the development… …   Universalium

  • benzene — /ben zeen, ben zeen /, n. Chem. a colorless, volatile, flammable, toxic, slightly water soluble, liquid, aromatic compound, C6H6, obtained chiefly from coal tar: used in the manufacture of commercial and medicinal chemicals, dyes, and as a… …   Universalium

  • nitrobenzene — /nuy troh ben zeen, ben zeen /, n. Chem. a pale yellow, toxic, water soluble liquid, C6H5NO2, produced by nitrating benzene with nitric acid: used chiefly in the manufacture of aniline. Also called nitrobenzol /nuy troh ben zawl, zol/. [1865 70;… …   Universalium

  • Pasteur, Louis — born Dec. 27, 1822, Dole, France died Sept. 28, 1895, Saint Cloud, near Paris French chemist and microbiologist. Early in his career, after studies at the École Normale Supérieure, he researched the effects of polarized light on chemical… …   Universalium

  • Μίτσερλιχ, Άιλχαρτ — (Eilhardt Mitscherlich, Νόιεντε, Όλντενμπουργκ 1794 – Σένμπεργκ, Βερολίνο 1863). Γερμανός χημικός. Σπούδασε πρώτα ιατρική και μετά αφοσιώθηκε εντελώς στη χημεία. Υπήρξε μαθητής και στη συνέχεια συνεργάτης του Μπερτσέλιους. Το 1821 τον προσκάλεσε… …   Dictionary of Greek

  • benzene — 1835, benzine, altered from Ger. Benzin, coined in 1833 by German chemist Eilhardt Mitscherlich (1794 1863) from Benz(oesäure) benzoic acid + ENE (Cf. ene) (Ger. in), hydrocarbon suffix. Mitscherlich obtained it from a distillation of benzoic… …   Etymology dictionary

  • polymorphism — polymorphistic, adj. /pol ee mawr fiz euhm/, n. 1. the state or condition of being polymorphous. 2. Crystall. crystallization into two or more chemically identical but crystallographically distinct forms. 3. Biol. the existence of an organism in… …   Universalium

  • benzene — [19] The original name given to this hydrocarbon, by the German chemist Eilhardt Mitscherlich in 1833, was benzine. He based it on the term benzoic acid, a derivative of benzoin, the name of a resinous substance exuded by trees of the genus… …   The Hutchinson dictionary of word origins

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