- Golden Bull of 1222
▪ Hungarian historycharter granted by King Andrew II of Hungary, which stated the basic rights and privileges of the Hungarian nobility and clergymen and the limits of the monarch's powers. The Hungarian nobles, aroused by Andrew's excesses and extravagances, forced him to promulgate the Golden Bull. It contained 31 articles, reaffirming previously granted rights and bestowing new ones.The charter compelled the king to convoke the diet regularly, forbade him to imprison a noble without a proper trial before the palatine (an official who assumed the chief administrative duties in the king's absence), and denied the king the right to tax nobles' and the church's estates. It released the nobles from required service without pay in the king's army abroad and also prohibited foreigners from owning landed estates and Jews and Muslims from holding public office (the latter provision was added in 1231).The charter also increased the nobles' authority in the counties; the king's county officials ( főispan) could be dismissed for misconduct, and their positions could not become hereditary. Furthermore, if the king or his successors violated the provisions of the Golden Bull, the nobles and bishops had the right to resist ( jus resistendi) without being subject to punishment for treason. After 1222 all Hungarian kings had to swear to uphold the Golden Bull.
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