- Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV
▪ Holy Roman Empire constitution for the Holy Roman Empire promulgated in 1356 by the emperor Charles IV. It was intended to eliminate papal (pope) interference in German political affairs and to recognize the importance of the princes, especially the electors, of the empire. Its name, like that of other “golden bulls,” derived from its authentication with a golden seal (Latin bulla).Returning to Germany in July 1355 after his coronation as emperor in Rome, Charles IV summoned the princes to deliberations at Nürnberg, which resulted in the promulgation of the first 23 chapters of the Golden Bull on Jan. 10, 1356; the concluding 8 chapters were added after further negotiation with the princes in Metz on Dec. 25, 1356. The purpose was to place the election of the German ruler firmly in the hands of the seven electors (elector) and to ensure that the candidate elected by the majority should succeed without dispute. That the electoral college (see elector) consisted of three ecclesiastical and four lay princes had been established since 1273, but it was not always clear who these seven were. Therefore, the Saxon vote was now attached to the Wittenberg (not the Lauenburg) branch of the Saxon dynasty; the vote was given to the count Palatine (not to the duke of Bavaria); and the special position of Bohemia, of which Charles himself was king, was expressly recognized. In addition Charles established succession by primogeniture, attached the electoral vote to the possession of certain lands, and decreed that these territories should never be divided. The candidate elected by the majority was regarded as unanimously elected and entitled to exercise his royal rights immediately. Thus the pope's claim to examine rival candidates and to approve the election was ignored. Also, by instituting the duke of Saxony and the count Palatine as regents during the vacancy, the Golden Bull excluded the pope's claim to act as vicar.These results were achieved only by concessions to the electoral princes, who were given sovereign rights, including tallage and coinage, in their principalities. Appeals by their subjects were severely curtailed; conspiracies against them incurred the penalties of treason. Moreover, the efforts of cities to ensure autonomous development were repressed, with serious and long-lasting consequences for the future of the German middle classes. In theory, these privileges were confined to the seven electors; in practice, all the princes quickly adopted them.
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