Gage, Thomas

Gage, Thomas

▪ British general
born 1721, Firle, Sussex, Eng.
died April 2, 1787, England
 British general who successfully commanded all British forces in North America for more than 10 years (1763–74) but failed to stem the tide of rebellion as military governor of Massachusetts (1774–75) at the outbreak of the American Revolution.

      Gage's military career in North America began in 1754, when he sailed with his regiment to serve in the last French and Indian War (1756–63). He participated in Gen. Edward Braddock's disastrous campaign in western Pennsylvania (1754) and in the successful operation against Quebec (1759–60). He was thereupon made governor of Montreal (1760) and promoted to major general (1761).

      In 1763 Gage was appointed commander in chief of all British forces in North America—the most important and influential post in the colonies. Headquartered in New York, he ran a vast military machine of more than 50 garrisons and stations stretching from Newfoundland to Florida and from Bermuda to the Mississippi. He exhibited both patience and tact in handling matters of diplomacy, trade, communication, Indian relations, and western boundaries. His great failure, however, was in his assessment of the burgeoning independence movement. As the main permanent adviser to the mother country in that period, he sent critical and unsympathetic reports that did much to harden the attitude of successive ministries toward the colonies.

      When resistance turned violent at the Boston Tea Party (1773), Gage was instrumental in shaping Parliament's retaliatory Intolerable (Coercive) Acts (1774), by which the port of Boston was closed until the destroyed tea should be paid for. He was largely responsible for inclusion of the inflammatory provision for quartering of soldiers in private homes and of the Massachusetts Government Act, by which colonial democratic institutions were superseded by a British military government. Thus Gage is chiefly remembered in the U.S. as the protagonist of the British cause while he served as military governor in Massachusetts from 1774 to 1775. In this capacity, he ordered the march of the redcoats on Lexington and Concord (Lexington and Concord, Battles of) (April 1775), which was intended to uncover ammunition caches and to capture the leading Revolutionary agitator, Samuel Adams, who escaped. This unfortunate manoeuvre signalled the start of the American Revolution; after the equally disastrous Battle of Bunker Hill in June, Gage was succeeded by Gen. Sir William Howe. He soon returned to England and was commissioned a full general in 1782.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gage,Thomas — Gage (gāj), Thomas. 1721 1787. British general and colonial administrator. As governor of Massachusetts (1774 1775) his attempts to suppress colonial resistance led to the start of the American Revolution. * * * …   Universalium

  • Gage, Thomas — (1721 1787)    Fought under Braddock at Monongahela, 1755, and under Abercrombie at Ticonderoga, 1758. Took part in the campaign for the conquest of Canada, 1759; made military governor of Montreal after its capitulation, 1760. Succeeded Amherst …   The makers of Canada

  • GAGE, THOMAS —    English general, son of Viscount Gage; he served in the Seven Years War, and took part in 1755 in Braddock s disastrous expedition in America; in 1760 he became military governor of Montreal, and three years later commander in chief of the… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Thomas Gage (Geistlicher) — Thomas Gage (* um 1597; † 1656 in Jamaika) war ein englischer Geistlicher. Er war der Sohn des Adligen John Gage (dieser ab 1622 Baronet) und dessen Ehefrau Margaret. Die Familie war katholischen Glaubens, es bestanden enge Familienbande zu… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Thomas Gage — Grabado de sir Thomas Gage …   Wikipedia Español

  • Thomas Gage — Infobox Governor name = Thomas Gage order = office = Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay term start = May 13, 1774 term end = October 11, 1775 lieutenant = predecessor = Thomas Hutchinson successor = William Howe birth date = 1719 birth …   Wikipedia

  • Thomas Gage — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gage (homonymie). Gravure de Thomas Gage Sir Thomas Gage (1719 – 2 avril 1787) était un général, commandant en che …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Thomas Gage (clergyman) — Thomas Gage (c. 1597 ndash; 1656) was an English clergyman.He was the son of the English Catholic gentleman John Gage, from 1622 a baronet, and his wife Margaret. The family were strong Catholics and were intermarried with other Catholic families …   Wikipedia

  • Thomas Gage, 1er Vicomte Gage — Thomas Gage (1er vicomte Gage) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gage (homonymie). Portrait équestre de Thomas Gage par James Seymour (1743) Thomas Gage …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Thomas gage (1er vicomte gage) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gage (homonymie). Portrait équestre de Thomas Gage par James Seymour (1743) Thomas Gage …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”