art and architecture, Egyptian

art and architecture, Egyptian


      the ancient architectural monuments, sculptures, paintings, and decorative crafts produced mainly during the dynastic periods of the first three millennia BC in the Nile valley regions of Egypt and Nubia. The course of art in Egypt paralleled to a large extent the country's political history, but it depended as well on the entrenched Egyptian social system. A hierarchical class structure, sustained by official religion, demanded obedience to authoritarian laws and adherence to obligatory ethics. Egyptian art, perhaps more than any other art, served those in power as a forceful propaganda instrument that perpetuated the existing framework of society.

      For the purposes of definition ancient Egyptian is essentially coterminous with dynastic Egyptian, the dynastic structure of Egyptian history, artificial though it may partly be, providing a convenient chronological framework. The distinctive periods are: Early Dynastic (1st–3rd dynasties, c. 2925–c. 2575 BC); Old Kingdom (4th–8th dynasties, c. 2575–c. 2130 BC); First Intermediate (9th–11th dynasties, c. 2130–1939 BC); Middle Kingdom (12th–14th dynasties, 1938–c. 1600? BC); Second Intermediate (15th–17th dynasties, c. 1630–1540 BC); New Kingdom (18th–20th dynasties, 1539–1075 BC); Third Intermediate (21st–25th dynasties, c. 1075–656 BC); and Late Dynastic (26th–31st dynasties, 664–332 BC).

      Geographical factors were predominant in forming the particular character of Egyptian art. By providing Egypt with the most predictable agricultural system in the ancient world, the Nile (Nile River) afforded a stability of life in which arts and crafts readily flourished. Equally, the deserts and the sea, which protected Egypt on all sides, contributed to this stability by discouraging serious invasion for almost 2,000 years. The desert hills were also rich in minerals and fine stones, ready to be exploited by artists and craftsmen. Only good wood was lacking, and the need for it led the Egyptians to undertake foreign expeditions to Lebanon, to Somalia, and, through intermediaries, to tropical Africa. In general, the search for useful and precious materials determined the direction of foreign policy and the establishment of trade routes and led ultimately to the enrichment of Egyptian material culture. For further treatment, see Egypt; Middle Eastern religions, ancient (Middle Eastern religion).

Predynastic period
      The term predynastic denotes the period of emerging cultures that preceded the establishment of the 1st dynasty in Egypt. In the late 5th millennium BC there began to emerge patterns of civilization that displayed characteristics deserving to be called Egyptian. The accepted sequence of predynastic cultures is based on the excavations of Sir Flinders Petrie (Petrie, Sir Flinders) at Naqādah, at al-ʿĀmirah (el-ʿÂmra), and at al-Jazīrah (Jazīrah, Al-) (el-Gezira). Another somewhat earlier stage of predynastic culture has been identified at al-Badārī in Upper Egypt.

      From graves at al-Badārī, Dayr Tasa, and al-Mustaqiddah evidence of a relatively rich and developed artistic and industrial culture has been retrieved. pottery of a fine red polished ware with blackened tops already shows distinctive Egyptian shapes. Copper was worked into small ornaments, and beads of steatite (soapstone) show traces of primitive glazing. Subsequently in the Naqādah I (Amratian culture) and Naqādah II stages predynastic civilization developed steadily. Pottery remains the distinctive product, showing refinement of technique and the development of adventurous decoration. Shapes already found in Badarian graves were produced in Naqādah I with superior skill and decorated with geometric designs of white-filled lines and even simple representations of animals. Later new clays were exploited, and fine buff-coloured wares were decorated in purple pigment with scenes of ships, figures, and a wide variety of symbols.

      The working of hard stones also began in earnest in the later Predynastic Period. At first craftsmen were devoted to the fashioning of fine vessels and to the making of jewelry incorporating semiprecious stones.

      Sculpture (Western sculpture) found its best beginnings not so much in representations of the human form (although figurines, mostly female, were made from Badarian times) as in the carving of small animal figures and the making of schist (slate) palettes (intended originally for the preparation of eye paint). The Hunters and Battlefield palettes (British Museum; part of the former in the Louvre; part of the latter in the Ashmolean, Oxford) show two-dimensional representation—a convention that was to last 3,000 years.

      The basic techniques of two-dimensional art—drawing and painting—are exemplified in Upper Egyptian rock drawings and in the painted tomb at Hierakonpolis, now destroyed. Scenes of animals, boats, and hunting, the common subjects of rock drawings, were more finely executed in paint in the tomb, and additional themes, probably of conquest, presaged those found in dynastic art.

Dynastic Egypt
 Evidence suggests that the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt drew together the various threads of what was to become the rich tapestry of Egyptian culture and started the intricate weave on the loom of time. Many of the new artistic developments undoubtedly can be traced back to the Naqādah II period; but the abundant evidence from the great tombs of the 1st dynasty at Abydos and Ṣaqqārah far outweighs what was found in the modest burials of earlier times. The impression is certainly one of an extraordinary efflorescence of civilization. Conquest, implicit in unification, is dramatically characterized in the scenes shown on the Narmer Palette (Egyptian Museum, Cairo), where Narmer, probably the founding king of dynastic Egypt, and better known as Menes, is depicted as the triumphant ruler (see photograph—>).

      The Narmer representations display much of what is typical of Egyptian art of the Dynastic Period. Here is the characteristic image of the king smiting his enemy, depicted with the conventions that distinguish Egyptian two-dimensional art. The head is shown in profile, but the eye in full; the shoulders are frontally represented, while the torso is at three-quarters view; the legs again are in profile. To show as much detail as possible was the principal intention of the artist—to show what he knew was there, not simply what he could see from one viewpoint.

      Further conventions, well established by the 4th dynasty, included the showing of both hands and feet, right and left, without distinction. Scenes were set on baselines, and the events were placed in sequence, usually from right to left. Unity in a scene was provided by the focal figure of the most important person, the king or tomb owner. Relative size established importance: the ruler dwarfed the high official, while the tomb owner dwarfed his wife and, still more so, his children.

      Conservatism in artistic matters was nurtured by a relative coherence of culture, strengthened by a vigorous tradition of scribal training, and tempered by a canon of proportion for the representation of the human figure. In the Old Kingdom, walls prepared for decoration were marked out with red horizontal guidelines; in later times vertical lines were added. During much of the Dynastic Period a grid of 18 rows of squares was used to contain the standing figure of a man; from the 26th dynasty, 21 rows of squares were used for the same purpose. At different periods, variations in the placing of specific bodily features produced interesting and subtle nuances. During the so-called Amarna period a distinctive reappraisal of the canon took place. The full range of changes and the many variants still remain to be studied, but it is clear that the basic canon lay deeply rooted in the training of the Egyptian artist.

      The two principal building materials used in ancient Egypt were unbaked mud brick and stone. From the Old Kingdom onward stone was generally used for tombs—the eternal dwellings of the dead—and for temples—the eternal houses of the gods. Mud brick remained the domestic material, used even for royal palaces; it was also used for fortresses, the great walls of temple precincts and towns, and for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes.

      Most ancient Egyptian towns have been lost because they were situated in the cultivated and flooded area of the Nile Valley; many temples and tombs have survived because they were built on ground unaffected by the Nile flood. Any survey of Egyptian architecture will in consequence be weighted in favour of funerary and religious buildings. Yet the dry, hot climate of Egypt has allowed some mud brick structures to survive where they have escaped the destructive effects of water or man.

Tomb architecture
      Mortuary architecture in Egypt was highly developed and often grandiose. The tomb was not simply a place in which a corpse might be protected from desecration. It was the home of the deceased, provided with material objects to ensure continued existence after death. Part of the tomb might reproduce symbolically the earthly dwelling of the dead person; it might be decorated with scenes that would enable the individual to pursue magically an afterlife suitable and similar to his worldly existence. For a king the expectations were quite different; for him the tomb became the vehicle whereby he might achieve his exclusive destiny with the gods in a celestial afterlife.

      Most tombs comprised two principal parts, the burial chamber (the tomb proper) and the chapel, in which offerings for the deceased could be made. In royal burials the chapel rapidly developed into a temple, which in later times was usually built separately and at some distance from the tomb. In the following discussion, funerary temples built separately will be discussed with temples in general and not as part of the funerary complex.

Royal tombs
      In the earliest dynasties the tombs of kings and high officials were made of mud brick and of such similar size that it is difficult to distinguish between them. It is now generally thought that the tombs at Abydos were royal, whereas those at Ṣaqqārah were noble. The latter, better preserved than the former, reveal rectangular superstructures, called mastabas (see below), with sides constructed in the form of paneled niches painted white and decorated with elaborate “matting” designs.

      These great superstructures contained many storage chambers stocked with food and equipment for the deceased, who lay in a rectangular burial chamber below ground. Also within the superstructure, but not always clearly evident, was a low mound of earth, possibly representing the primitive grave of earlier times. Sometimes this concealed mound was a low, stepped structure, perhaps the precursor of the first great building constructed of stone in Egypt.

      The Step Pyramid of Djoser, second king of the 3rd dynasty, was built within a vast enclosure on a commanding site at Ṣaqqārah overlooking the city of Memphis. A high royal official, Imhotep, has traditionally been credited with the design and with the decision to use quarried stone. This first essay in stone is remarkable for its design of six superposed stages of diminishing size, and also for its huge enclosure (1,784 × 909 feet [544 × 277 metres]) surrounded by a paneled wall faced with fine limestone and containing a series of “mock” buildings that probably represent structures associated with the palace in Memphis. There the Egyptian stonemasons made their earliest architectural innovations, using stone to reproduce the forms of primitive wood and brick buildings. Fine reliefs of the king and elaborate wall “hangings” in glazed tiles in parts of the subterranean complexes are among the innovations found in this remarkable monument.

Pyramid of Khufu
      For the Old Kingdom the most characteristic form of tomb building was the true pyramid, the finest example of which is the Great Pyramid of King Khufu (Cheops) of the 4th dynasty at al-Jīzah (Giza, Pyramids of) (Giza). The form itself reached its maturity in the reign of Snefru, father of Khufu. Subsequently only the pyramid of Khafre (Chephren), Khufu's successor, approached the size and perfection of the Great Pyramid. The simple measurements of the Great Pyramid indicate very adequately its scale, monumentality, and precision: its sides are 755.43 feet (230.26 metres; north), 756.08 feet (230.45 metres; south), 755.88 feet (230.39 metres; east), 755.77 feet (230.36 metres; west); its orientation on the cardinal points is almost exact; its height upon completion was 481.4 feet (146.7 metres); its area at base is just over 13 acres (5.3 hectares). Other features in its construction contribute substantially to its remarkable character: the lofty, corbeled Grand Gallery and the granite-built King's Chamber with five relieving compartments (empty rooms for reducing pressure) above.

      The pyramid formed the focal point of a group of buildings that constituted the funerary complex of a king. Two temples (temple) linked by a causeway were essential components. The valley temple, built on the edge of the desert escarpment, was the place of reception for the royal body. The most striking valley temple is that of Khafre, a structure of massive granite blocks with huge alabaster flooring slabs, starkly simple but immensely effective. The best preserved causeway serves the pyramid of King Unas of the 5th dynasty; it contains low-relief wall decorations and a ceiling adorned with stars. The pyramid temple of Unas is distinguished by the extensive use of granite for architectural elements, including doorways and splendid monolithic columns with palm capitals.

      The pyramids built for the later kings of the Old Kingdom and most kings of the Middle Kingdom were comparatively poor in size, construction, and materials. The tomb of King Mentuhotep II of the 11th dynasty is, however, of exceptional interest. The tomb complex at Dayr al-Baḥrī was once thought to have contained a pyramid, but excavations between 1966 and 1971 have shown that the hypothetical reconstructions were misconceived. Its essential components were a rectangular structure, a series of pillared ambulatories, an open court, and a hypostyle hall tucked into the cliffs.

      The monumentality of the pyramid made it not only a potent symbol of royal power but also an obvious target for tomb robbers. During the New Kingdom the wish to halt the robbing and desecration of royal tombs led to their being sited together in a remote valley at Thebes, dominated by a peak that itself resembled a pyramid. There, in the Valley of the Kings (Kings, Valley of the), tombs were carved deep into the limestone with no outward structure and marked only by a doorway carved in the rock face. They had no common plan, but most consisted of a series of corridors opening out at intervals to form rooms and ending in a large burial chamber deep in the mountain. The finest of the tombs is that of Seti I, second king of the 19th dynasty; it extends 328 feet (100 metres) into the mountain and contains a spectacular burial chamber, the barrel-shaped roof of which represents the vault of heaven.

      After the abandonment of the valley at the end of the 20th dynasty, kings of the subsequent two dynasties were buried in very simple tombs within the temple enclosure of the delta city of Tanis. No later royal tombs have ever been identified.

Private tombs
      A major distinction between royal and nonroyal tombs lies in the provision of arrangements for the funerary cult of the deceased. The evidence available from the 3rd dynasty onward makes it clear that king and commoner had quite different expectations. In nonroyal tombs a chapel was provided that included a formal tablet or stela on which the deceased was shown seated at a table of offerings. The earliest examples are simple and architecturally undemanding; later a suitable room, the tomb-chapel, was provided for the stela (now incorporated in a false door) in the tomb superstructure, or mastaba.

      The term mastaba (Arabic: “bench”) was first used archaeologically in the 19th century by workmen on Auguste Mariette's excavation at Ṣaqqārah to describe the rectangular, flat-topped stone superstructures of tombs. Subsequently, mastaba was also used for mud brick superstructures.

      In the great cemeteries of the Old Kingdom, changes in size, internal arrangements, and groupings of the burials of nobles indicate the vicissitudes of nonroyal posthumous expectations. In the 3rd dynasty at Ṣaqqārah the most important private burials were at some distance from the step pyramids of Djoser and Sekhemkhet. Their large superstructures incorporated offering niches that were to develop into chapels (as in the tomb of Khabausokar) and corridors that could accommodate paintings of equipment for the afterlife and niches to hold carved representations of the deceased owner (as in the tomb of Hesire). During the 4th dynasty the stone mastabas of the Giza pyramid field were regularly laid out near the pyramids, and, although smaller than those at Ṣaqqārah, they show the true start of the exploitation of space within the superstructure. The niche chapel became a room for the false door and offering table, and there might also be rooms containing scenes of offering and of daily activities.

      Nothing indicates more clearly the relaxation of royal authority in the later Old Kingdom than the size and decoration of the mastabas at Ṣaqqārah and Abusīr. Externally they were still rectangular structures, occasionally with a low wall establishing a precinct (as in the tomb of Mereruka). The full exploitation of internal space in the great mastabas at Abusīr (that of Ptahshepses) and Ṣaqqārah (that of Ti and the double mastaba of Akhtihotep and Ptahhotep) made ample room available for the receipt of offerings and for the representation of the milieu in which the dead owner might expect to spend his afterlife. In the mastaba of Mereruka, a vizier of Teti, first king of the 6th dynasty, there were 21 rooms for his own funerary purposes, with six for his wife and five for his son.

      Contemporaneously, the provincial colleagues of the Memphite nobles developed quite different tombs in Middle and Upper Egypt. Tomb chapels were excavated into the rock of the cliffs overlooking the Nile. Rock-cut tombs subsequently were to become the most common kind of private tomb, although mastabas were built in the royal cemeteries of the 12th dynasty.

      Most rock-cut tombs were fairly simple single chambers serving all the functions of the multiplicity of rooms in a mastaba. Some, however, were excavated with considerable architectural pretensions. At Aswān huge halls, often connecting to form labyrinthine complexes, were partly formal, with columns carefully cut from the rock, and partly rough-hewn. Chapels with false doors were carved out within the halls. In some cases the facades were monumental, with porticoes and inscriptions.

      At Beni Hasan the local nobles during the Middle Kingdom cut large and precise tomb chambers in the limestone cliffs. Architectural features—columns, barrel roofs, and porticoes, all carved from the rock—provided fine settings for painted mural decorations. The tombs of Khnumhotep and Amenemhet are outstanding examples of fine design impeccably executed.

      The most famous rock-cut private tombs are those of the New Kingdom at Thebes, their fame resting, above all, on their mural decoration. As elsewhere the excavated chambers are the tomb-chapels, mostly taking a simple T-form, in which the crossbar of the T represents the entrance hall, and the upright stroke of the T is the chapel proper. Some of the more important tombs (Rekhmire, Ramose) have open courts before their unelaborate facades and some striking internal features, but most are small in comparison with those of earlier times.

      A separate tradition of private tomb design was developed for important officials at Ṣaqqārah in the New Kingdom. Open courts, constructed offering chapels, and elaborate subterranean suites of rooms characterize these Memphite tombs. The tomb for Horemheb, a military commander who became the last king of the 18th dynasty, has remarkable relief decoration. The tomb of Tia (a sister of the 19th-dynasty king Ramses II) has a small pyramid behind the chapel.

Temple architecture (temple)
      Two principal kinds of temple can be distinguished—cult temples and funerary or mortuary temples. The former accommodated the images of deities, the recipients of the daily cult; the latter were the shrines for the funerary cults of dead kings.

Cult temples
      It is generally thought that the Egyptian temple of the Dynastic Period owed most to the cult of the sun god Re at Heliopolis (Re). The temple of Re, however, was probably open in plan and lacked a shrine. Sun temples were unique among cult temples; worship was centred on a cult object, the benben, which was a squat obelisk placed in full sunlight. Among the few temples surviving from the Old Kingdom are sun temples of the 5th-dynasty kings at Abū Jirāb (Abu Gurab). That of Neuserre reveals the essential layout: a reception pavilion at the desert edge connected by a covered corridor on a causeway to the open court of the temple high on the desert, within which stood the benben of limestone and a huge alabaster altar. Fine reliefs embellished the covered corridor and also corridors on two sides of the court.

      The cult temple achieved its most highly developed form in the great sanctuaries erected over many centuries at Thebes. Architecturally the most satisfying, and certainly the most beautiful, is the Luxor Temple, started by Amenhotep III of the 18th dynasty. The original design consists of an imposing open court with colonnades of graceful lotus columns, a smaller offering hall, a shrine for the ceremonial boat of the god, an inner sanctuary for the cult image, and a room in which the divine birth of the king was celebrated. The approach to the temple was made by a colonnade of huge columns with open papyrus-flower capitals, planned by Amenhotep III but decorated with fascinating processional reliefs under Tutankhamen and Horemheb. Later Ramses II built a wide court before the colonnade and two great pylons to form a new entrance.

      The necessary elements of an Egyptian temple, most of which can be seen at Luxor, are the following: an approach avenue of sphinxes leading to the great double-towered pylon entrance fitted with flagpoles and pennants; before the pylon a pair of obelisks and colossal statues of the king; within the pylon a court leading to a pillared hall, the hypostyle, beyond which might come a further, smaller hall where offerings could be prepared; and at the heart of the temple, the shrine for the cult image. In addition, there were storage chambers for temple equipment and sometimes a crypt. Outside the main temple building was a lake, or at least a well, for the water needed in the rituals; in later times there might also be a birth house (mammisi) to celebrate the king's divine birth. The whole, with service buildings, was contained by a massive mud brick wall.

      The great precinct of the Temple of Karnak (the longest side, 1,837 feet [560 metres]) contains whole buildings, or parts of buildings, dating from the early 18th dynasty down to the Roman Period. Modern reconstruction work has even recovered a tiny way station of the 12th dynasty, a gem of temple building decorated with some of the finest surviving relief scenes and texts.

      Of the structures on the main Karnak axis the most remarkable are the hypostyle hall and the so-called Festival Hall of Thutmose III. The former contained 134 mighty papyrus columns, 12 of which formed the higher central aisle (76 feet [23 metres]). Grill windows allowed some light to enter, but it must be supposed that even on the brightest day most of the hall was in deep gloom.

      The Festival Hall is better described as a memorial hall. Its principal room is distinguished by a series of unusual columns with bell-shaped capitals, inspired by the wooden tent poles used in primitive buildings. Their lightness contrasts strikingly with the massive supports of the hypostyle hall.

      Near Karnak Temple, King Akhenaton and his wife, Nefertiti, built a number of temples, later dismantled, to the sun god Aton. The vast number of blocks found in modern times indicates that these constructions were essentially open places for worship like the earlier sun temples. So, too, was the great Aton temple at Tell el-Amarna (Amarna, Tell el-), built later in Akhenaton's reign.

      The most interesting and unusual cult temple of the New Kingdom was built at Abydos by Seti I of the 19th dynasty. Principally dedicated to Osiris, it contained seven chapels dedicated to different deities, including the deified Seti himself. These chapels have well-preserved barrel ceilings and are decorated with low-relief scenes retaining much original colour.

 The most remarkable monument of Ramses II, the great builder, is undoubtedly the temple of Abu Simbel (see photograph—>). Although excavated from the living rock, it follows generally the plan of the usual Egyptian temple: colossal seated statues emerging from the facade, which is the cliff face; a pillared hall followed by a second leading to a vestibule; and a shrine with four statues of divinities, including one of Ramses himself.

      Mention should also be made of the immense temple dedicated to the god Amon-Re at Tanis in the delta by the kings of the 21st and 22nd dynasties. Much of the stone for the so-called northern Karnak, along with colossal statues and a dozen obelisks, was appropriated from other sanctuaries in Egypt, making this a remarkable assemblage of earlier work. It was not only a cult temple but the funerary temple for the kings who were buried within the precinct.

Funerary temples
      Most of the New Kingdom funerary temples were built along the desert edge in western Thebes. An exception, and by far the most original and beautiful, was Queen Hatshepsut's (Hatshepsut) temple, designed and built by her steward Senenmut near the tomb of Mentuhotep II at Dayr al-Baḥrī. Three terraces lead up to the recess in the cliffs where the shrine was cut into the rock. Each terrace is fronted by colonnades of square pillars protecting reliefs of unusual subjects, including an expedition to Punt and the divine birth of Hatshepsut. Ramps lead from terrace to terrace, and the uppermost level opens into a large court with colonnades. Chapels of Hathor (the principal deity of the temple) and Anubis occupy the south and north ends of the colonnade of the second terrace.

      The largest conventionally planned funerary temple was probably that of Amenhotep III, now to be judged principally from the two huge quartzite statues, the Colossi of Memnon. These and other royal sculptures found in the ruins of the temple's courts and halls testify to the magnificence now lost. Its design, as well as much of its stone, was used by Ramses II for his own funerary temple, the Ramesseum. The huge enclosure of the latter included not only the temple but also a royal palace (only traces of which can now be seen). The temple itself contained two huge open courts, entered through towering pylons, which led to a lofty hypostyle hall and a smaller hall with astronomical carvings on the ceiling. Statues of vast size stood before the second pylon, one of which, now toppled and ruined, has been estimated as weighing more than 1,000 tons. Mud brick storerooms in the enclosure preserve ample evidence of the use of the vault in the late 2nd millennium BC.

       Ramses III's funerary temple at Madīnat Habu contains the best preserved of Theban mortuary chapels (mortuary temple) and shrines, as well as the main temple components. The most private parts of the temple, to which few had access apart from the king and his priestly representatives, begin at the sides of the first hypostyle hall, with the temple treasury and a room for the processional boat of Ramses II (a much-honoured ancestor) on the south and shrines for various deities, including Ramses III, on the north. A second pillared hall is flanked by a solar chapel and a small Osiris complex, where the king took on the personae of Re, the sun-god, and of Osiris, god of the underworld, a transfiguration considered necessary for his divine afterlife. Beyond the Osiris complex, along the temple axis, is a third small hall and the main shrine for the Theban god Amon; two lateral shrines were reserved for Amon's consort Mut and their divine child Khons.

      As with most New Kingdom temples, the mural decorations on the outer walls of funerary temples, including that at Madīnat Habu, dealt mainly with the military campaigns of the king, while the inner scenes were mostly of ritual significance. Within the temple precinct lived and worked a whole community of priests and state officials. A small palace lay to the south of the main building, and a further suite of rooms for the king was installed in the castellated gate building on the east side of the precinct. The reliefs in this “high gate” suggest that the suite was used for recreational purposes by the king together with his women.

Domestic architecture
      Mud brick and wood were the standard materials for houses and palaces throughout the Dynastic Period; stone was used occasionally for such architectural elements as doorjambs, lintels, column bases, and windows.

      The best preserved private houses are those of modest size in the workmen's village of Dayr al-Madīnah. Exceptional in that they were built of stone, they typically had three or four rooms, comprising a master bedroom, a reception room, a cellar for storage, and a kitchen open to the sky; accommodation on the roof, reached by a stair, completed the plan.

      Villas for important officials in Akhenaton's city of Tell el-Amarna (Amarna, Tell el-) were large and finely decorated with brightly painted murals. The house of the vizier Nakht had at least 30 rooms, including separate apartments for the master, his family, and his guests. Such houses had bathrooms and lavatories. The ceilings of large rooms were supported by painted wooden pillars, and there may have been further rooms above. Where space was restricted (as in Thebes) houses of several stories were built. Tomb scenes that show such houses also demonstrate that windows were placed high to reduce sunlight and that hooded vents on roofs were used to catch the breeze.

      Palaces, as far as can be judged from remains at Thebes and Tell el-Amarna, were vast, rambling magnified versions of Nakht's villa, with broad halls, harem suites, kitchen areas, and wide courts. At Tell el-Amarna some monumental formality was introduced in the form of porticoes, colonnades, and statuary. Lavish use was made of mural and floor decoration in which floral themes predominated.

Sculpture (Western sculpture)
      The Egyptian artist, whose skills are best exemplified in sculpture, regarded himself essentially as a craftsman. Owing to his discipline and highly developed aesthetic sense, however, the products of his craft deserve to rank as art outstanding by any standards.

      Much of the surviving sculpture is funerary—statues for tombs. Most of the remainder was made for placing in temples—votive for private persons and ritual for royal and divine representations. Royal colossi were ritual and also served to proclaim the grandeur and power of the king. By itself, however, a statue could represent no one unless it carried an identification in hieroglyphs.

Emergence of types in the Old Kingdom
      The standing male figure with left leg advanced and the seated figure were the most common types of Egyptian statuary. Traces of wooden figures found at Ṣaqqārah show that the first type was being made as early as the 1st dynasty. The earliest seated figures are two of King Khasekhem (Khasekhemwy) of the 2nd dynasty (Egyptian Museum, Cairo, and Ashmolean, Oxford), which, although relatively small, already embody the essential monumentality of all royal sculpture.

      Supreme sculptural competence was achieved remarkably quickly. The primitive, yet immensely impressive life-size statue of Djoser (Egyptian Museum) pointed the way to the magnificent royal sculptures from the 4th-dynasty pyramid complexes at Giza. For subtlety of carving and true regal dignity scarcely anything of later date surpasses the diorite statue of Khafre (Egyptian Museum). Scarcely less fine are the sculptures of Menkaure (Mycerinus). The pair statue of the king and his wife (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) exemplifies wonderfully both dignity and marital affection; the triads showing the king with goddesses and nome (provincial) deities exhibit a complete mastery of carving hard stone in many planes.

      This union of skill and genius was achieved in nonroyal statuary more frequently in the Old Kingdom than later. The painted limestone statues of Prince Rahotep and his wife, Nofret (Egyptian Museum), exemplify this achievement in the formal category of seated figures. They also display the Egyptian's unsurpassed skill in inlaying eyes into sculptures, a skill further demonstrated in the wooden figure of Kaʿaper, known as Shaykh al-Balad (Egyptian Museum), the very epitome of the self-important official.

      Among additions to the sculptural repertoire during the Old Kingdom was the scribal statue. Examples in the Louvre and in the Egyptian Museum express brilliantly the alert vitality of the bureaucrat, squatting on the ground with brush poised over papyrus. The heads of such figures possess striking individuality, even if they are not true portraits.

Refinements of the Middle Kingdom
      Changes in funerary practices during the Middle Kingdom led to a reduction in the number of sculptures. Royal sculptures, particularly of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III (British Museum), achieved a high degree of realism, even of portraiture. The first true royal colossi were produced in the 12th dynasty (if the Great Sphinx of Giza is discounted) for the embellishment of cult temples. Colossi of Amenemhet I and Sesostris I (Egyptian Museum) exhibit a hard, uncompromising style said to typify the ruthless drive of the 12th-dynasty kings.

      In this period, too, the sphinx—the recumbent lion with head or face of the king—became a commonly used image of the king as protector. The great red granite sphinx of Amenemhet II from Tanis (Louvre) expresses the idea most potently.

      In private sculpture during the Middle Kingdom the subject is in most cases portrayed seated or squatting, occasionally standing, and wearing an all-enveloping cloak. The body was mostly concealed, but its contours were often subtly suggested in the carving, as in the figure of Khertyhotep (Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin). Of female subjects, none is more impressive than that of Sennu (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), a wonderful example of a figure in repose.

      The simplification of the human figure was carried to its ultimate in the block statue, a uniquely Egyptian type that represents the subject squatting on the ground with knees drawn up close to his body. The arms and legs may be wholly contained within the cubic form, hands and feet alone discretely protruding. The 12th-dynasty block statue of Sihathor (British Museum) is the earliest dated example.

Innovation, decline, and revival in the New Kingdom
      Excellence of craftsmanship is the hallmark of 18th-dynasty sculpture, in a revival of the best traditions of the Middle Kingdom. Wonderfully sensitive statues of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III confirm the return of conditions in which great work can be achieved. A seated limestone statue of Hatshepsut (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City) shows the queen as king, but with an expression of consummate grace. A schist statue of Thutmose III (Luxor Museum), in the perfection of its execution and subtlety of its realization, epitomizes regality.

      The placing of votive statues in temples led to a proliferation of private sculptures during the New Kingdom. The sculptures of Senenmut, steward of Hatshepsut, exemplify the development. At least 23 votive statues (some fragmentary) of this royal favourite are known, exhibiting many different forms.

      Colossal sculpture (colossus), which reached its apogee in the reign of Ramses II, was used to splendid, and perhaps less bombastic, effect by Amenhotep III. The great sculptures of his funerary temple, already mentioned, including the immense Colossi of Memnon, were part of the noble designs of his master of works, also called Amenhotep (Amenhotep, son of Hapu) (son of Hapu). Most unusually, this distinguished commoner was allowed a funerary temple for himself and larger-than-life votive sculptures (Egyptian Museum and Luxor Museum) that show him in contrasting attitudes, as stern-faced authoritarian and as submissive scribe.

      The realistic portraiture that can be noted in certain sculptures of Amenhotep III (British Museum) hints of an artistic change that was developed in the subsequent reign of Akhenaton. The distinctive style of this period has come to be called Amarna (Amarna style), after the location of Akhenaton's new capital in Middle Egypt. Colossal sculptures of the King from the dismantled Karnak temples (Egyptian Museum) emphasize his bodily peculiarities—elongated facial features, heavy breasts, and swelling hips. Sculptures of Nefertiti, his queen, are often executed in the most remarkably sensual manner (e.g., the Louvre torso). Sculptures from later in the reign display innovations of style with no loss of artistry, at the same time avoiding the grotesqueries of the early years. Of this period is the famous painted bust of Nefertiti (Ägyptisches Museum).

      Much of the best of the artistic legacy of Akhenaton's reign persisted in the sculpture of subsequent reigns—Tutankhamen, Horemheb, and the early kings of the 19th dynasty—but a marked change came in the reign of Ramses II. It is a commonplace to decry the quality of his monumental statuary, although little in Egypt is more dramatic and compelling than the great seated figures of this king at Abu Simbel. Nevertheless, there is much truth in the belief that the steady decline in sculpture began during Ramses II's reign. Royal portraiture subsequently became conventional. Occasionally a sculptor might produce some unusual piece, such as the extraordinary figure of Ramses VI with his lion, dragging beside him a Libyan prisoner (Egyptian Museum). Among private sculptures there is the scribal statue of Ramsesnakht (Egyptian Museum); the subject bends over his papyrus while Thoth (the divine scribe), in baboon form, squats behind his head.

      A change was to come with the advent of the Kushite (Nubian) kings of the 25th dynasty. The portraiture of the Kushite kings exhibits a brutal realism that may owe much to the royal sculpture of the 12th dynasty; the sphinx of Taharqa, fourth king of the 25th dynasty (British Museum), is a good example.

      Archaism is strikingly evident in the private sculpture of the last dynasties. Types of statue common in the Middle Kingdom and 18th dynasty were revived, and many very fine pieces were produced. The sculptures of the mayor of Thebes, Montemhat (Egyptian Museum), display great variety, excellent workmanship, and, in one case, a realism that transcends the dictates of convention.

      In considering the clear sculptural qualities of Late Period work one should never overlook the primary purpose of most Egyptian sculpture: to represent the individual in death before Osiris, or in life and death before the deities of the great temples. To this end the statue was not only a physical representation but also a vehicle for appropriate texts, which might be inscribed obtrusively over beautifully carved surfaces. The extreme example of such “disfigurement” is a so-called healing statue (Louvre) of which even the wig is covered with texts.

Relief sculpture and painting
      For Egyptians the decoration of tomb walls with reliefs (relief) or painted scenes (painting, Western) provided some certainty of the perpetuation of life; in a temple, similarly, it was believed that mural decoration magically ensured the performance of important ceremonies and reinforced the memory of royal deeds.

      The beginnings of the dynastic tradition can be found in tombs of the 3rd dynasty, such as that of Hesire at Ṣaqqārah; it contained mural paintings of funerary equipment and wooden panels carrying figures of Hesire in the finest low relief (Egyptian Museum). Generally speaking, mural decorations were in paint when the ground was mud brick or stone of poor quality, and in relief when the walls were in good stone. Painting and drawing formed the basis of what was to be carved in relief, and the finished carving was itself commonly painted.

      In tombs the mural decorations might be left unfinished, being only partly sketched or partly carved by the time of the burial. Uncompleted scenes reveal clearly the methods of laying out walls for decoration. The prepared wall was marked out with red guidelines, the grid described earlier being used for major human figures and sometimes for minor ones. Preliminary outlines were corrected and paint was applied usually in tempera, pigments being mostly mineral-based.

      In the Old Kingdom pure painting of the highest quality is found as early as the 4th dynasty in the scene of geese from the tomb of Nefermaat and Atet at Maydum. But the glory of Old Kingdom mural decoration is the low-relief work in the royal funerary monuments of the 5th dynasty and in the private tombs of the 5th and 6th dynasties in the Memphite necropolis. Outstanding are the reliefs from the sun temple of King Neuserre at Abu Jīrab (Ägyptisches Museum, East and West Berlin) and the scenes of daily life in the tombs of Ptahhotep and Ti at Ṣaqqārah.

      The tradition of fine painting was continued in the Middle Kingdom. At Beni Hasan the funerary chambers are crowded with paintings exhibiting fine draftsmanship and use of colour. The best relief work of the period, reviving the Memphite tradition, is found at Thebes in the tomb of Mentuhotep II at Dayr al-Baḥrī and in the little shrine of Sesostris I at Karnak, where the fine carving is greatly enhanced by a masterly use of space in the disposition of figures and text.

      In the early 18th dynasty the relief tradition was revived at Thebes and can best be observed in the carvings in Hatshepsut's temple at Dayr al-Baḥrī. Later royal reliefs of Amenhotep III and of the post-Amarna kings show a stylistic refinement that was carried to its best in the reign of Seti I, at Karnak, at Abydos, and in his tomb at Thebes.

      The 18th dynasty also saw Egyptian painting reach its highest achievement in the tombs of the nobles at Thebes. The medium of decoration and an apparently greater artistic freedom led to the introduction of small, often entertaining details into standard scenes. The tiny tombs of Menna and Nakht are full of such playful vignettes. The paintings in great tombs, such as that of Rekhmire, are more formal but still crammed with unusual detail. Fragments of mural and floor paintings from palaces and houses at Thebes and Tell el-Amarna provide tantalizing glimpses of the marsh and garden settings of everyday upper-class life.

      The fine royal reliefs of the late 18th dynasty were matched by those in private tombs at Thebes (Ramose and Kheruef) and Ṣaqqārah (Horemheb); these are breathtaking in execution and, in the case of Horemheb, both moving and original. Interest in relief subsequently passed to the work in the temples of the 19th and 20th dynasties. The most dramatic subject was war, whether the so-called triumph of Ramses II at Kadesh (Thebes and Abu Simbel), or the more genuine successes of Ramses III against the Libyans and the Sea Peoples (Madīnat Habu). The size and vitality of these ostentatious scenes are stupendous, even if their execution tends to be slapdash.

      The artistic renaissance of the 25th and 26th dynasties is less evident in painting and relief than in sculpture. Although the fine work in the tomb of Montemhat at Thebes is distinctly archaizing, it is, nevertheless, exceptional in quality. The skills of the Egyptian draftsman, nurtured by centuries of exercise at large and small scale, remained highly professional. This skill is seen at its most consistent level in the illumination of papyruses (papyrus). The practice of including drawings, often painted, in religious papyruses flourished from the time of the 18th dynasty and reached a high point around 1300 BC. The peak of achievement is probably represented by the Book of the Dead of the scribe Ani (British Museum), in the vignettes of which both technique and the use of colour are outstanding. Subsequently, and especially in the Late Period, pure line drawing was increasingly employed.

Plastic arts
      In Egypt pottery provided the basic material for vessels of all kinds. Fine wares and many other small objects were made from faience. Glass arrived late on the scene and was used somewhat irregularly from the New Kingdom onward.

      Generally speaking, Egyptian pottery had few artistic pretensions. In the tomb of Tutankhamen most of the pottery vessels were simple wine jars in the form of amphorae. It is surprising that no finer pottery vessels were found, because high-quality ware was made during the late 18th and 19th dynasties, often brightly painted with floral designs.

      Pottery was rarely modeled, although human and animal figures occur in small numbers throughout the Dynastic Period. Small vessels in animal form were also made, especially during the Middle and New Kingdoms, and a fine category of highly burnished red pottery vases in female form was produced during the 18th dynasty.

      The place of pottery for modeling was filled with faience (a glazed composition of ground quartz), most commonly blue or green in colour. In the Early Dynastic Period it was much used for the making of small animal and human figures, and throughout the Dynastic Period it continued to be used in this way, among the most striking results being the blue-glazed hippopotamus figures of Middle Kingdom date.

      In the Late Period, in particular, the making of amulets and divine figurines in faience was highly developed, and many pieces display a high standard of modeling and perfection of glazing. The vast quantities of ushabti (ushabti figure) (shabti, or shawabti) figures provided as parts of funerary equipments are mostly routine work, but the finest examples from the New Kingdom, and some of Saite date, show complete mastery of a difficult technique.

      Faience tiles were also first made in the early dynasties and were used chiefly for wall decoration, as in the subterranean chambers of the Step Pyramid. In the New Kingdom, tiles with floral designs were used in houses and palaces in the reigns of Amenhotep III and his successors. During the 19th and 20th dynasties royal palaces at Per Ramessu (modern Qantīr), Tell al-Yahudīyah, and Madīnat Habu were embellished with remarkable polychrome tiles, many of which bear figures of captive foreigners.

      Throughout the Dynastic Period faience was regularly used for simple beads, amulets, and other components of jewelry. Quite exceptional is the extraordinary was-sceptre (a symbol of divine power) found at Tūkh, near Naqādah (Victoria and Albert Museum, London). It is dated to the reign of Amenhotep II and originally measured about six and a half feet (two metres) in length.

      In the form of glaze, glass (glassware) was known to the ancient Egyptians from early predynastic times, but the material was not used independently until the 18th dynasty. From the mid-18th dynasty and during the 19th dynasty glass was used for small amulets, beads, inlays, and especially for small vessels. The material was opaque, blue being the predominant colour, although other bright colours were also achieved. The vessels, made around sand cores, were mostly drinking cups or flasks for precious liquids and were often decorated with trailed patterns applied as glass threads. Glass was certainly a material of luxury, a fact confirmed by the presence of two glass goblets with gold rims among a treasure of precious vessels from the reign of Thutmose III (Metropolitan Museum of Art).

 The use of glass for inlay is notably demonstrated in Tutankhamen's golden throne, in his solid gold mask, and in much of his jewelry (see photograph—>). After the 19th dynasty, glass manufacture seems largely to have been discontinued until the Late Period,when the use of glass for inlays was revived.

Decorative arts
      Gold provided Egyptian jewelry (decorative art) with its richness; it was used for settings, cloisonné work, chains, and beads, both solid and hollow. Soldering, granulation, and wire making were practiced. Precious stones were not used, but a wide range of semiprecious stones was exploited: carnelian, amethyst, garnet, red and yellow jasper, lapis lazuli, feldspar, turquoise, agate. Additional colours and textures were provided by faience and glass.

      Ancient Egyptian jewelers had a fine eye for colour and an excellent sense of design. From the earliest dynasties come bracelets from the tomb of King Djer at Abydos (Egyptian Museum); from the 4th dynasty, the armlets of Queen Hetepheres, of silver inlaid with carnelian, turquoise, and lapis lazuli (Egyptian Museum and Museum of Fine Arts). There are examples of splendid and delicate jewelry dating from the Middle Kingdom: in particular, pieces found at Dahshūr and al-Lāhūn—circlets of Princess Khnumet (Egyptian Museum), pectorals of Princess Sithathor and Queen Meret (Egyptian Museum), and girdles of Princess Sithathor-iunet (Metropolitan Museum of Art).

      The large and spectacular collection of jewelry buried with Queen Ahhotep of the early 18th dynasty (Egyptian Museum) includes many unusual designs; her gold chain is a masterpiece. Much fine 18th-dynasty jewelry has survived, but all is dominated by that of Tutankhamen (Egyptian Museum). This huge collection demonstrates all the techniques of the goldsmith's and the lapidary's arts.

Copper and bronze
      The techniques of metalworking (metalwork) were probably introduced into Egypt from the Middle East at a very early date. At first copper was most commonly used; but from at least the late 3rd millennium it was often alloyed with tin, as bronze.

      The skill and artistry of the metalworker is shown in the fine bowls, jugs, and other vessels from all periods, and in statues and statuettes of gods, kings, and ordinary mortals. Most vessels were made by raising from metal ingots, beaten on wooden anvils. In the Late Period many vessels were produced by casting. Huge situlae, vessels used for carrying sacred liquids, are often decorated with scenes and inscriptions.

      The earliest and largest metal figure from Egypt is the life-size statue of Pepi I (Egyptian Museum) made of copper plates fitted to a wooden core, the plates probably beaten, not cast. Casting in open molds was developed early for tools and weapons, but the lost-wax process (cire-perdue), using closed molds, was not employed until the Middle Kingdom. Even in the 18th dynasty the casting of bronze figures occurred on a relatively small scale.

      The casting of large-scale bronze figures achieved its highest point in the late New Kingdom down to the 25th dynasty. The outstanding example from this period is the figure of Karomama (Louvre). The exceptionally elegant modeling of the female form is greatly enriched by inlays of gold and silver reproducing the feathered pattern of the gown and an elaborate collar of floral motifs.

      In the Late Period huge numbers of excellent castings of conventional sacred figures and animals were produced. The so-called Gayer-Anderson cat (British Museum) is technically and artistically without peer.

Gold and silver
      Gold (goldwork) was more easily obtainable in ancient Egypt than silver (silverwork) and was therefore less valuable (until the late New Kingdom). Gold was also easier to work and unaffected by environmental conditions. In consequence, many more gold than silver objects have survived.

      Apart from jewelry, gold was lavishly used for many decorative purposes, as thin sheet, leaf, and inlay, in funerary equipment, and for vessels and furniture. The range of uses is best exemplified in the objects from the tomb of Tutankhamen.

      The gold-plated, gold-inlaid furniture of Queen Hetepheres of 4th-dynasty date reveals how early Egyptian craftsmen mastered the working of gold. Gold vessels have rarely survived, but those from the royal burials of Tanis (Egyptian Museum) preserve styles and techniques that go back to the traditions of the New Kingdom and earlier. Gold statuettes also are rare, but again, surviving examples, such as the magnificent falcon head of a cult statue of 6th-dynasty date from Hierakonpolis and the divine triad of Osiris, Isis, and Horus of the 22nd dynasty (Louvre), show the achievements of early and late times.

      In a hoard of precious vessels found at Bubastis and dated to the 19th dynasty (Egyptian Museum) there were three silver pieces of exceptional interest, in particular a jug the handle of which is of gold and in the shape of a goat. Greater availability of silver in later times is demonstrated by two massive silver coffins and a number of vessels in the royal burials at Tanis (Egyptian Museum).

      The wooden sculpture of the Old Kingdom shows the carver of wood at his most skillful and sensitive. But it is in the field of cabinetmaking (cabinet) that the ancient woodworker excelled. Best known are the many chairs, tables, stools, beds, and chests found in Tutankhamen's tomb. Many of the designs are exceptionally practical and elegant. Techniques of inlay, veneering, and marquetry are completely mastered. One chest is veneered with strips of ivory and inlaid with 33,000 small pieces of ivory and ebony. Fine furniture was being produced in very early times, as is confirmed by the skillfully restored furniture from the secondary burial of Hetepheres (Egyptian Museum and Museum of Fine Arts).

      Among the most charming and delicate products of the Egyptian woodworker are the many toilet spoons and containers in the form of graceful swimming girls, lute players in the marshes, and fishes and animals. At the other extreme, nothing is more remarkable than the great boat, more than 140 feet (43 metres) long, found in a trench by the side of the Great Pyramid.

Ivory (bone) and bone (ivory)
      Of the few small ivory figurines to have survived from pharaonic times, two royal representations found in the Early Dynastic temple at Abydos (Egyptian Museum and British Museum) are outstanding. There can be little doubt, in spite of the paucity of survivals, that fine decorative objects of ivory were made at all periods. A gazelle and a grasshopper of the 18th dynasty (Metropolitan Museum of Art and Brooklyn Museum) may truly be described as objets de vertu. Many fine examples of the use of ivory were found in Tutankhamen's tomb, from simple geometric marquetry patterns to box panels carved with exquisitely informal scenes of the king with his queen.

Greco-Roman Egypt
      After the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, the independent rule of Pharaohs in the strict sense came to an end. Under the Ptolemies, whose rule followed Alexander's, profound changes took place in art and architecture.

      The most lasting impression of the new period is made by the architectural legacy. Although very little survives of important funerary architecture, there is a group of tombs at Tunah al-Jabal of unusual form and great importance. Most interesting is the tomb of Petosiris, high priest of Thoth in nearby Hermopolis Magna in the late 4th century BC. It is in the form of a small temple with pillared portico, elaborate column capitals, and a large forecourt. In its mural decorations a strong Greek influence merges with the traditional Egyptian modes of expression.

      A boom in temple building of a more conventional kind followed the establishment of the Ptolemaic regime. At Dandarah, Esna, Idfū, Kawm Umbū (Kôm Ombo), and Philae the Egyptian cult temple can be studied better than at almost any earlier temple. The temple of Horus at Idfū is the most complete, displaying all the essentials of the classical Egyptian temple. The common judgment on these late temples is adverse, but for exploitation of setting and richness of detail it is difficult to fault the temples of Philae and Kawm Umbū, in particular.

      In relief carving a noticeable change had taken place in the conventional proportions of human figures during the Saite Period, and subsequently, with added influences from Greek art, a more voluptuous style of human representation developed. There is also undoubtedly some coarseness in much of the new work. Nevertheless, there is much to admire in the best reliefs of the Hathor Temple at Dandarah and in the double cult temple of Sebek and Horus at Kawm Umbū.

      Generous representation of the human form, especially the female form, also characterizes the sculpture of the Ptolemaic Period, and there is little to match the figure of Queen Arsinoe II (State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad). It is in the treatment of the head, however, that the greatest changes took place. It is a matter of debate whether the new emphasis on portraiture was attributable to influences from the classical world or was a development of earlier Egyptian sculptural tendencies. Fine pieces such as the schist “green” head of a man (Ägyptisches Museum) could not have failed to impress the observer from the Ptolemaic court or the later Roman administration. One of the finest surviving heads, in diorite, slightly larger than life-size and of dominating appearance, is the “black” head in The Brooklyn Museum.

      Throughout the Ptolemaic Period votive sculpture of private persons was made in great quantity. After the Roman conquest it became rare and of indifferent quality. Such Egyptian art as can be isolated in the Roman Period is found in funerary equipment—in coffins, shrouds, and panel portraits. A mixture of Egyptian and classical styles and of diverse symbolisms can be observed. The great shroud showing the deceased and his mummy protected by the mortuary deity, Anubis (Louvre), while harking back to the traditions of pharaonic Egypt, also displays in the figure of the deceased a style that points to Byzantium.

      The mummy, or Fayum (Fayum portrait), portraits are Egyptian only in that they are associated with essentially Egyptian burial customs. Painted in an encaustic technique, they represent mostly Greek inhabitants of Egypt. Seen properly in context, as in the complete mummy of Artemidorus (British Museum), they provide a strange epilogue to the funerary art of 3,000 years of pharaonic Egypt. In this field and in a few others the vigour of the native tradition persisted artistically up to the Roman conquest. Thereafter the decline was rapid and complete. By the 3rd century AD Egypt was on the way to becoming a Christian country. The old tradition was not only destroyed, it was no longer valued. Coptic art was to find its inspiration elsewhere.

Additional Reading
BIBLIOGRAPHY. The best general surveys are Cyril Aldred, Egyptian Art, in the Days of the Pharaohs, 3100–320 BC (1980); Cyril Aldred (et al.), Le Temps des pyramides: de la préhistoire aux Hyksos, 1560 av. J.-C. (1978), L'Empire des conquérants: l'Égypte au Nouvel Empire (1560–1070) (1979), and L'Égypte du crépuscule: de Tanis à Méroé, 1070 av. J.-C.–IVe siècle apr. J.-C. (1980); Kazimierz Michalowski, The Art of Ancient Egypt, trans. and adapted from the Polish and French (1969); Kurt Lange and Max Hirmer, Egypt: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting in Three Thousand Years, 4th ed. (1968; originally published in German, 4th ed., 1967); William Stevenson Smith, The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt, rev. ed. by William Kelly Simpson (1983); Claude Vandersleyen, Das alte Ägypten (1975); and Walther Wolf, Die Kunst Aegyptens (1957). On conventions and general principles, fundamental works are Erik Iversen, Canon and Proportions in Egyptian Art, 2nd ed. rev. (1975); Heinrich Schäfer, Principles of Egyptian Art, ed. by Emma Brunner-Traut (1974; originally published in German, 4th ed., 1963); and William Stevenson Smith, Interconnections in the Ancient Near-East: A Study of the Relationships Between the Arts of Egypt, the Aegean, and Western Asia (1965). The only comprehensive work on architecture is Alexander Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture, 3 vol. (1954–68); for a thoughtful study, see E. Baldwin Smith, Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (1938, reissued 1968); on the pyramids, in particular, the best introduction is I.E.S.. Edwards, The Pyramids of Egypt, rev. ed. (1986). For the best introduction to the analysis of sculpture, see Hans Gerhard Evers, Staat aus dem Stein: Denkmäler, Geschichte und Bedeutung der ägyptischen Plastik während des Mitteleren Reichs, 2 vol. (1929). For Old Kingdom to New Kingdom sculpture, see Cyril Aldred, Old Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt (1949), Middle Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt, 2300–1590 BC (1950), and New Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt During the Eighteenth Dynasty: 1590 to 1315 BC (1951), varying editions reissued as The Development of Ancient Egyptian Art, from 3200 to 1315 BC, 3 vol. in 1 (1952, reprinted 1973); and Jacques Vandier, Manuel d'archéologie égyptienne, vol. 3, Les Grandes Époques: la statuaire (1958). For the Old Kingdom, see William Stevenson Smith, A History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom (1946, reissued 1978); and for the Late Period and Greco-Roman Period, Bernard V. Bothmer (comp.), Egyptian Sculpture of the Late Period, 700 BC to AD 100 (1969). Excellent reproductions of paintings and drawings are to be found in Nina M. Davies and Alan H. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Paintings, 3 vol. (1936); good surveys and some unusual material are in Emma Brunner-Traut, Egyptian Artists' Sketches (1979). Also see T.G.H. James, Egyptian Painting (1985); Arpag Mekhitarian, Egyptian Painting (1954, reissued 1978; originally published in French, 1954); and William H. Peck, Drawings from Ancient Egypt (1978). A good survey of the whole range of pottery is Janine Bourriau, Umm el-Gaʿab: Pottery from the Nile Valley Before the Arab Conquest (1981). On glassware, see John D. Cooney, Glass (1976). Jewelry is well treated artistically and technically in Cyril Aldred, Jewels of the Pharaohs (1971, reissued 1978); and technically and archaeologically in Alix Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptian Jewellery (1971, reissued 1975). An excellent general account of furniture is contained in Hollis S. Baker, Furniture in the Ancient World: Origins and Evolution 3100–475 BC (1966); for a reliable technical study, see G. Killen, Ancient Egyptian Furniture, vol. 1 (1980). On Greco-Roman art there is an excellent summaryin Günther Grimm, Kunst der Ptolemäer- und Römerzeit im Ägyptischen Museum Kairo (1975); for useful background essays, see Herwig Maehler and Volker Michael Strocka (eds.), Das ptolemäische Ägypten (1978); and on reliefs in Greco-Roman temples, see Erich Winter, Untersuchungen zu den ägyptischen Tempelreliefs der griechisch-römischen Zeit (1968). The essential work on Fayum portraits is Klaus Parlasca, Mumienporträts und verwandte Denkmäler (1966).Thomas Garnet Henry James

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