/gawl/, n.
1. impudence; effrontery.
2. bile, esp. that of an animal.
3. something bitter or severe.
4. bitterness of spirit; rancor.
5. gall and wormwood, bitterness of spirit; deep resentment.
[bef. 900; ME; OE galla, gealla; c. G Galle; akin to L fel, Gk cholé gall, bile]
Syn. 1. nerve, audacity, brass, cheek.
/gawl/, v.t.
1. to make sore by rubbing; chafe severely: The saddle galled the horse's back.
2. to vex or irritate greatly: His arrogant manner galls me.
3. to be or become chafed.
4. Mach. (of either of two engaging metal parts) to lose metal to the other because of heat or molecular attraction resulting from friction.
5. Metall. (of a die or compact in powder metallurgy) to lose surface material through adhesion to the die.
6. a sore on the skin, esp. of a horse, due to rubbing; excoriation.
7. something very vexing or irritating.
8. a state of vexation or irritation.
[bef. 1000; ME galle (n.), gallen (v.) perh. < MD, MLG gall, akin to OE gealla sore on a horse]
/gawl/, n.
any abnormal vegetable growth or excrescence on plants, caused by various agents, as insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and mechanical injuries.
[1350-1400; ME galle < MF < L galla gallnut. See GALL2]

* * *

Abnormal, localized outgrowth or swelling of plant tissue caused by infection from bacteria, fungi, viruses, or nematodes, or by irritation by insects and mites.

The common plant disease crown gall, characterized by the proliferation of galls on the roots and lower stems, is caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

* * *

▪ Sioux chief

born c. 1840, near Moreau River [in present-day South Dakota], U.S.
died 1894, near Oak Creek, S.D.

      Hunkpapa Sioux war chief, who was one of the most important military leaders at the Battle of the Little Bighorn (June 25, 1876).

      Orphaned at an early age, Gall was adopted as a younger brother by the Sioux chief Sitting Bull. In many clashes with settlers and the U.S. Army, Gall distinguished himself as an excellent tactician and strategist. At the Battle of the Little Bighorn (Little Bighorn, Battle of the), Gall is credited with having turned back an initial Indian rout and then luring Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer and his men into an indefensible position, annihilating his force. After this victory, Gall and Sitting Bull faced continual skirmishes and battles with the military, and in May 1877 he followed Sitting Bull into Canada. The Canadian government would not give them a reservation, the herds of buffalo were gone, and Gall and his people faced starvation. He eventually abandoned Sitting Bull and surrendered to the U.S. Army (c. 1880). Once on the Sioux reservation in South Dakota, Gall urged his people to become more acculturated with the whites. His breach with Sitting Bull (who eventually lived on the reservation) became complete when Gall was persuaded to sign the treaty of 1889 that broke up the so-called Great Sioux Reservation and ceded much territory to white settlers.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Gall — ist ein Familienname: Gall (Indianerhäuptling) ( 1840–1894), Kriegshäuptling der nordamerikanischen Hunkpapa Lakotas Bernd Erich Gall (* 1956), deutscher Maler und Konzeptkünstler Berthold R. Gall (* 1947), deutscher Politiker (CDU) Dorothee Gall …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gall — (g[add]l), n.[OE. galle, gal, AS. gealla; akin to D. gal, OS. & OHG. galla, Icel. gall, SW. galla, Dan. galde, L. fel, Gr. ?, and prob. to E. yellow. [root]49. See {Yellow}, and cf. {Choler}] 1. (Physiol.) The bitter, alkaline, viscid fluid found …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gall — (g[add]l), n. [F. galle, noix de galle, fr. L. galla.] (Zo[ o]l.) An excrescence of any form produced on any part of a plant by insects or their larvae. They are most commonly caused by small Hymenoptera and Diptera which puncture the bark and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • gall — gall·acetophenone; gall·anilide; gall; gall·ber·ry; mc·dou·gall; gall·anilid; gall·ing·ly; gall·ing·ness; …   English syllables

  • gall — ‘bile’ [12], and by metaphorical extension ‘bitterness’ and ‘effrontery’, was borrowed from Old Norse gall. It gets its name ultimately from its colour, for its prehistoric Germanic ancestor *gallam or *gallon (which also produced German galle… …   The Hutchinson dictionary of word origins

  • gall — ‘bile’ [12], and by metaphorical extension ‘bitterness’ and ‘effrontery’, was borrowed from Old Norse gall. It gets its name ultimately from its colour, for its prehistoric Germanic ancestor *gallam or *gallon (which also produced German galle… …   Word origins

  • Gall — Gall, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Galled} (g[add]ld); p. pr. & vb. n. {Galling}.] [OE. gallen; cf. F. galer to scratch, rub, gale scurf, scab, G. galle a disease in horses feet, an excrescence under the tongue of horses; of uncertain origin. Cf. {Gall}… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • gall — Ⅰ. gall [1] ► NOUN 1) bold and impudent behaviour. 2) bitterness or cruelty. 3) an animal s gall bladder. 4) archaic the contents of the gall bladder; bile. ORIGIN Old English. Ⅱ …   English terms dictionary

  • Gall — (Franz Josef) (1758 1828) médecin allemand. Fondateur de la phrénologie, il étudia les fonctions du cerveau et leurs localisations. Gall (saint) (v. 550 645) moine irlandais. Venu évangéliser le continent, il résida en Haute Saône (France), puis… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • gall — [n] nerve, brashness acrimony, animosity, arrogance, bitterness, brass, brazenness, cheek*, chutzpah*, conceit, confidence, crust cynicism, effrontery, guts*, haughtiness, hostility, impertinence, impudence, insolence, malevolence, malice,… …   New thesaurus

  • Gall — Gall, v. i. To scoff; to jeer. [R.] Shak. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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