- Charles IV
1. ("Charles the Fair") 1294-1328, king of France 1322-28.2. (Charles of Luxembourg) 1316-78, king of Germany 1347-78 and Bohemia 1346-78; emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1355-78.
* * *Iborn Nov. 11, 1748, Portici, Kingdom of Naplesdied Jan. 20, 1819, RomeKing of Spain (1788–1808) during the turbulent period of the French Revolution.Son of Charles III, he lacked leadership qualities and entrusted the government to Manuel de Godoy. After a French invasion in 1794, Spain was reduced to the status of a French satellite. When Napoleon again occupied northern Spain in 1807, Charles was forced to abdicate (1808) and go into exile.IIknown as Charles the Fairborn 1294died Feb. 1, 1328, Vincennes, Fr.King of France and of Navarre (as Charles I) 1322–28.The last of the direct line of the Capetian dynasty, he took the throne on the death of his brother Philip V. His intrigues aimed at gaining the German throne and annexing Flanders were unsuccessful. He renewed war with England by invading Aquitaine and won a generous settlement in the peace of 1327.IIIborn May 14, 1316, Praguedied Nov. 29, 1378, PragueKing of the Germans and of Bohemia (1346–78) and Holy Roman emperor (1355–78).Charles was elected German king in place of Louis IV in 1346. That same year his father died in a war against England, and Charles became king of Bohemia. He invaded Italy and won the crown of Lombardy as well as the imperial crown at Rome. Charles enlarged his dynastic power through skillful diplomacy and made Prague the political and cultural center of the empire. He issued the Golden Bull of 1356 and won the right of succession to the German throne for his son Wenceslas.
* * *▪ Holy Roman emperorIntroductionbyname Charles of Luxembourg , original name Wenceslas , Czech Karel Lucembursky , or Václav , German Karl Von Luxemburg , or Wenzelborn May 14, 1316, Praguedied Nov. 29, 1378, PragueGerman king and king of Bohemia (as Charles) from 1346 to 1378 and Holy Roman emperor from 1355 to 1378, one of the most learned and diplomatically skillful sovereigns of his time. He gained more through diplomacy than others did by war, and through purchases, marriages, and inheritance he enlarged his dynastic power. Under Charles's rule Prague became the political, economic, and cultural centre—and eventually the capital—of the Holy Roman Empire. Indeed, from his reign until the 18th century it was understood that the German imperial crown was based on the crown of the king of Bohemia.Early life.Charles was the eldest son of the Bohemian king John of Luxembourg and Elizabeth, the sister of the last native Bohemian king. In 1323 he joined the French court, where he married Blanche, the sister of Philip VI of France. One of his teachers in Paris was the future pope Clement VI. In 1330 Charles's father summoned him to Luxembourg, and in 1331 he headed the administration of his father's provisional acquisitions in northern Italy. Two years later his father appointed him margrave of Moravia and captain general of Bohemia. In his autobiography Charles told of the difficulties he had in redeeming the pawned royal castles, towns, and mansions, in building up an army, and in suppressing the influence of the nobility, which had grown during his father's absence. But Charles's administrative ability only aroused John's suspicion, and he was dismissed in 1335. After a reconciliation Charles was assigned to missions outside Bohemia, but his competence as a statesman and diplomat made him increasingly indispensable to his father. In 1341 John, now blind, introduced him, as his successor, to an assembly of prelates, nobility, and gentry, representatives of the royal towns, and ambassadors of Breslau; in 1343 John entrusted him with the administration of the country. One year later, due to Charles's efforts, Pope Clement VI raised the bishopric of Prague to an archbishopric, thus giving the Bohemian lands ecclesiastical autonomy. At the same time, the foundation stone of St. Vitus' Cathedral, built under the direction of Charles, was laid on the Hradčany Hill in the Bohemian capital. Meanwhile, negotiations were initiated to elect Charles German king in place of Louis IV, who had been excommunicated by the Pope in 1324. Charles did not gain the throne until 1346, when he was elected by five out of seven electors and had taken all the oaths the Pope had demanded. William of Ockham, one of the greatest medieval theologians and scholars, called Charles rex clericorum (“the priests' king”). Louis, however, refused to acknowledge Charles and maintained that he was the rightful king.King of Bohemia.At first the coexistence of two German kings had no bad consequences. But after Charles took part in a war against England, in which his father died at the Battle of Crécy (1346), he became king of Bohemia and prepared to attack Louis. Although Louis IV died in the following year, his followers elected anti-kings until Charles won them over peaceably. By granting privileges to the towns in southern Germany, he gained their support; and by using diplomatic skill, he managed to make friends in the north as well. Soon he was generally recognized as the only German king. His main concern, however, lay in the Bohemian lands—his Luxembourgian dynastic power—which provided his greatest source of strength.In 1347 Charles was crowned king of Bohemia by the new archbishop in Prague. Within a few months he issued a new law of coronation and defined the constitutional position of the king in the state: Bohemia became a hereditary monarchy in which the law of succession of the first-born son and his descendants was to be valid and binding; in case of the extinction of the male lineage, the law of succession devolved upon the daughters. Later, Charles's succession treaties (1364) with the Habsburg family in Austria and the Árpáds in Hungary were the bases on which the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was formed. In 1348 Charles founded the first university in central Europe to possess the same rights and liberties as did the universities of Paris and Bologna. At the same time the foundation stone was laid near Prague for another of Charles's projects—Karlštejn castle, where the imperial crown jewelry and the insignia of the crown of Bohemia were placed. In 1354 Charles led an army into Italy to secure recognition of the authority of the House of Luxembourg and of the patrimonial dominions of Bohemia. Early in 1355 he received the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Milan, and that Easter he received the imperial crown in Rome. At that time a Florentine contemporary described Charles as a medium-sized man, black-haired and broad-faced, with a habitual stoop. Having thus acquired the imperial crown, he is said to have fetched it and then returned to Prague, leaving the Italians embroiled in their own domestic problems. Petrarch was very much disillusioned by Charles.Back in Prague, Charles issued the decree known as the Golden Bull, a kind of imperial constitution. It regulated the election of the German king by seven electors, who, privileged with special rights, became domini terrae, real sovereigns; and above all stood the king of Bohemia. Charles's last wish was to secure the succession to the throne for his eldest son, Wenceslas. After long and difficult negotiations, Wenceslas was elected the German king. Charles died in 1378 and was buried in St. Vitus' Cathedral.Charles IV was a generous patron of arts and science, especially in Prague, and ardently supported church building and the establishment of charitable institutions. He was interested in the early Humanism, which especially came to influence his government, and was also influential in the development of the German written language.Helmut PreidelAdditional ReadingBede Jarrett, The Emperor Charles IV (1935), is a competent survey; also useful is Samuel H. Thomson, “Learning at the Court of Charles IV,” Speculum, 25:1–20 (1950). K. Pfisterer and W. Bulst (eds.), Karoli IV, Imp. Rom., vita ab eo ipso conscripta (1950), encompasses the years 1331–46. Peter Demetz, Prague in Black and Gold: Scenes from the Life of a European City (1997), has an excellent chapter on Charles and his time.▪ king of Francebyname (in France) Charles the Fair , or (in Navarre) Charles the Bald , French Charles le Bel , or Charles le Chauve , Spanish Carlos el Hermoso , or Carlos el Calvoborn 1294died Feb. 1, 1328, Vincennes, Fr.king of France and of Navarre (as Charles I) from 1322, the last of the direct line of the Capetian dynasty; his inglorious reign was marked by his invasion of Aquitaine and by political intrigues with his sister Isabella (Isabella Of France), wife of King Edward II of England.After the death of his brother Philip V in 1322, Charles ignored Philip's daughter and successfully claimed the throne for himself. Among his first political intrigues as king were to bid for the German throne and to intervene in Flanders, hoping to bring that territory under the French crown; both ventures failed.Charles also renewed war with England by invading Aquitaine; the peace of 1327 was the great triumph of his reign, giving him a generous land settlement and 50,000 marks.▪ king of Spainborn November 11, 1748, Portici, Kingdom of Naplesdied January 20, 1819, Rome, Italyking of Spain (1788–1808) during the turbulent period of the French Revolution, who succeeded his father Charles III.Lacking qualities of leadership himself, Charles entrusted the government (1792) to Manuel de Godoy (Godoy, Manuel de), a protégé of the queen, Maria Luisa of Parma. Their adherence to the First Coalition against Revolutionary France led to a French invasion in 1794. In July 1795 the conflict with France was ended by the Peace of Basle, which was followed the next year by the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an alliance between Spain and France against England. When Napoleon (Napoleon I) again occupied northern Spain in 1807, Charles, threatened by a coup, tried to flee to America, but was stopped and forced to abdicate by supporters of his son Ferdinand (March 1808). The following May, Napoleon deposed both Charles and Ferdinand, placing his brother Joseph Bonaparte (Bonaparte, Joseph) on the Spanish throne. Charles spent the rest of his life in exile.
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