- Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains [koon′loon′]mountain system in W China, between Tibet & Xinjiang: highest peak, c. 25,300 ft (7,711 m)
* * *or K'un-lun MountainsMountain system, east-central Asia.It extends for 1,250 mi (2,000 km) through the western regions of China. From the Pamirs of Tajikistan, it runs east along the border between Xinjiang and Tibet autonomous regions to the Sino-Tibetan ranges in Qinghai province. It divides the northern limit of the Plateau of Tibet from the interior plains of Central Asia. Its highest peak measures 25,348 ft (7,726 m).
* * *▪ mountains, AsiaIntroductionmountain system of southern Central Asia. The Kunluns extend west to east some 1,250 miles (2,000 km), from the Pamirs in Tajikistan in the west to the Kunlun Pass and the adjacent ranges of central Qinghai (Tsinghai) province in China in the east—Burhan Budai, Bayan Har, and A'nyêmaqên (Amne Machin). The width of the Kunluns varies considerably but rarely exceeds 125 miles (200 km). In the western margins they form an Inner Asian rampart between the Plateau of Tibet (Tibet, Plateau of) and the Tarim (Talimu) Basin in western China. A northern fork of the Altun (Altun Mountains) (Altyn Tagh) Mountains continues this alignment.The southern face of the Kunlun Mountains rises no more than 5,000 feet (1,500 metres) above the Plateau of Tibet, which itself averages some 15,000 feet (4,600 metres) in elevation. From the perspective of the oases at the southern edge of the Takla Makan Desert to the north of the mountains, however, the Kunluns form a massive rampart blocking access to the icy barren expanses of the westernmost reaches of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.Physical featuresPhysiographyThroughout much of their alignment, the Kunlun Mountains comprise two or three parallel ridges rather than a single crest. This is especially true in the western reaches. At the Sarykol Range where the Kunluns forge out from the Pamirs, a spur to the east called the Muztagata Range actually has some of the highest summits—Mount Kongur, at 25,325 feet (7,719 metres), as well as Mount Muztagata (Muztagata Range), at 24,757 feet (7,546 metres). A major bifurcation occurs just south of the oasis town of Qiemo (Cherchen); there, the Altun Mountains branch in a northeasterly direction from the Arkatag Mountains at Mount Muztag (Muztagh), which at 25,338 feet (7,723 metres) is the highest point in the Kunluns. To the east the northern rim of the Kunluns then becomes the southern margin of the vast, high Qaidam (Tsaidam) Basin (Qaidam Basin). High valleys with occasional saline lakes intersperse the medial Kunlun ridges.The highest crest of the main range of the western Kunlun Mountains is Mount Keriya, at an elevation of 23,359 feet (7,120 metres). Several peaks exceeding 20,000 feet (6,000 metres) punctuate the skyline in the central to eastern reaches, including Mount Muztag and Bukadaban Peak (22,507 feet [6,860 metres]). The surrounding plain lies above 16,000 feet (4,900 metres); hence, these mountains do not have the prominence of other high mountains in Asia. Soil zonation is simple in structure, with steppe soils and desert soils, both including those of the alpine group, predominating. Organic content is low, and bogs, moors, and saline depressions are common at the lower altitudes. Eolian erosion results in scattered large sand dunes.GeologyThe principal folded structures and granitic rocks of the Kunlun Mountains date to about 250 million years ago, a time during which there was much mountain building in the Eastern Hemisphere. The inner depressions of the Kunluns, however, are relatively recent structures in their entirety, being formed by deposits that are no more than 26 million years old; only the largest of them, the Qaidam Basin, contains a thick sedimentary cover of which Jurassic deposits (i.e., those roughly 150–200 million years old) represent the oldest strata. The Kunlun Mountains also represent a region of geologically recent movements of the Earth's crust, and a considerable amount of seismic (earthquake) activity still occurs, particularly associated with the Altun strike-slip fault system.Drainage and glaciationThe Kunlun Mountains form a part of that region in Central Asia in which there is only internal drainage, associated mainly with the Tarim and Qaidam basins to the north and the basins of the Plateau of Tibet to the south. Only the most easterly spurs of the mountain system, where the source of the Huang He (Yellow River) is located, have drainage systems that empty into the ocean.There are two river networks in the Kunluns: the large streams that rise in the Karakoram Range to the southwest and in northern Tibet, cutting through the entire chain of Kunlun ranges by way of gorges, and the small streams that drain the slopes of the peripheral ranges. The major rivers form lengthy, zigzag valleys; several supply irrigation water to the oases on the northern rim of the Kunlun Mountains.Although they receive some rainwater, the Kunlun rivers are fed mainly by snows and glaciers. The volume of flow thus varies with the seasons; 60 to 80 percent of it occurs in the summer months, when intensive thawing of snow and ice in the mountains is combined with maximum precipitation. High evaporation of snow and glacial meltwater has resulted in the formation of extensive salt pans.In spite of the great elevation, there is little glaciation in the Kunluns because of the extreme dryness of the climate; snow cover persists only along the deep crevices of the highest peaks. The main centres of glaciation occur at elevations of about 23,000 feet (7,000 metres). All the glaciers are notable for their unusual steepness and for their paucity of meltwater.ClimateThe Kunlun Mountains are almost totally isolated from the climatic influence of the Indian and Pacific Ocean monsoons. Instead, they are under the constant influence of the continental air mass, which causes great annual and diurnal temperature fluctuations. Maximum aridity occurs in the middle segment of the mountain system; to the west and east, however, the climate is somewhat moderated.In the most arid part of the Kunlun Mountains, precipitation is less than 2 inches (50 mm) annually in the foothills and about 4 to 5 inches (100 to 150 mm) in the high elevations; near the Pamirs and the Tibetan mountains, the amount of annual precipitation increases to about 18 inches (460 mm). In the lower tier of mountains (those bordering the northern plains), the average temperature is 77 to 82 °F (25 to 28 °C) in July and not lower than 16 °F (− 9 °C) in January; in the upper tier of mountains and on the border of Tibet, however, the average temperature in July is less than 50 °F (10 °C) and often falls to − 31 °F (− 35 °C) or lower in winter.The extremely sharp daily fluctuations of temperature in the high-elevation zone create conditions of intense weathering from heat and frost, producing enormous quantities of loose material in those areas. Also characteristic of the Kunlun Mountains are their high winds, the strongest of which occur in autumn; the winds of the Qaidam Basin are particularly noteworthy.Plant and animal lifeThe desert or, at best, steppe conditions prevailing throughout the Kunlun Mountains inhibit development of vegetation. Much of the terrain consists of rock deserts. Occasional stagnant water pools provide browsing and water for several wild ungulates, such as the Tibetan gazelle and Tibetan goat antelope (chiru), along with large herds of wild asses (kiang) and clusters of wild yaks. In the more humid western mountains, argali sheep (Ovis ammon) graze on the high grasslands. On the upper crags blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Ladakh urials, and ibex range sporadically throughout the western reaches. Willow thickets near watercourses frequently contain brown bears, and wolves are endemic; the snow leopard is rare. Many migratory waterfowl visit the lakes during seasonal migration.People and economyDespite the extreme climatic and topographic conditions, the Kunlun Mountains and adjacent areas support permanent and migratory populations. On the northern slopes are found Uighurs, up from the oases, and occasional Mongols. South to the northern areas of Tibet, Tibetan pastoral nomads have commandeered large expanses of formerly abandoned steppe grazing lands. Mountain Tajik and Kyrgyz remnants occupy the few settlements in the deep valleys of the western mountains adjacent to the Karakoram and Pamir ranges. Chinese ( han) are ubiquitous, with concentrations along the extensive and well-maintained network of gravel roads that has been constructed since 1949.Irrigation in a few areas sustains limited crop farming; otherwise, pastoralism constitutes the economic base, with a focus on yak and yak crossbreeds, sheep, goats, and occasionally cattle. High-yielding strains of wheat, barley, peas, potatoes, and rapeseed occupy the greater part of Tibet's arable land. The grass crop is low in volume but high in nutrients and protein.The hard-surfaced trans-Tibetan road from Dunhuang to Lhasa serves the settlements in Qinghai. Golmud, itself a modern city rising from the windblown flats of the Qaidam Basin, is a railway terminus. Several other major roads from the Tarim Basin oases penetrate the Kunlun massif. Trucks supply vegetables, building materials, motor fuel, and sundry goods to the farthest settlements and deliver raw materials such as petroleum, soda ash, and coal from extraction sites to nearby towns.Study and exploration (Earth exploration)The northern rim of the Kunlun Mountains, skirting the Tarim Basin, served for centuries as the southerly branch of the Silk Road that, until the 16th century, connected China with Central and Southwest Asia. Wool and salt were the main products brought down from the heights of the Kunluns to the oases on the edge of the Takla Makan Desert. Small regional Buddhist monasteries retained Tibetans as serfs, but repeated Muslim incursions from the north kept the Kunluns in a state of flux.British attempts to tap the trading potential of Chinese Turkistan spurred adventurers to probe the western end of the Kunluns, but it was not until the end of the 19th century that explorers such as the Swede Sven Anders Hedin (Hedin, Sven Anders) mustered enough resources to plot the western Kunlun Mountains. Several travelers used the east-west route in Tsinghai, through the eastern extensions of the Kunluns and Golmud as an alternative route to the Gansu Corridor. With the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, these peripheral territories came under central control, and Chinese scientific expeditions explored throughout the area. Major Chinese scientific accomplishments have defined the geology, glaciation, soils, and vegetation of the Kunlun Mountains. Another study, entailing international cooperation, has focused on the physiological and ecological adaptability of the various Kunlun ethnic groups to the high marginal environment adjoining the range's southern rim.Beginning in the 1980s, numerous geological expeditions have been undertaken by Sino-French and Sino-American teams to examine the evolution of the Kunlun Mountains and in particular the nature of tectonic movements along the Altun fault system.Vasily Mikhaylovich Sinitsyn Nigel John Roger AllanAdditional ReadingInformation on the Kunlun Mountains is found in writings on China and Tibet, especially Sven Hedin, Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia, 1899–1902, 6 vol. and atlas (1904–07), a record of the work of Central Asia's renowned explorer and his collaborators; Matthias Kuhle, “The Cold Deserts of High Asia: Tibet and Contiguous Mountains,” GeoJournal, 20(3):319–323 (1990); Proceedings of Symposium on Qinghai-Xisang (Tibet) Plateau (1980), surveying the geology and natural history of the high-altitude regions; David H.S. Chang, “The Tibetan Plateau in Relation to the Vegetation of China,” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 70(3):564–570 (1983); Maurizio Gaetani, Guido Gosso, and Ugo Pognante, “A Geological Transect from Kun Lun to Karakorum (Sinkiang, China): The Western Termination of the Tibetan Plateau,” Terra Nova, 2(1):23–30 (1990); Melvyn C. Goldstein and Cynthia M. Beall, Nomads of Western Tibet (1990); and P.E. Rumelhart et al., “Cenozoic Vertical-Axis Rotation of the Altyn Tagh Fault System,” Geology, 27(9):819–822 (1999).Nigel John Roger Allan
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