Representative venomous animals that inflict a sting

Representative venomous animals that inflict a sting

Representative venomous animals that inflict a sting
name and distribution toxic principle toxic effects and comments
Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia species); tropical seas tetramine, 5-hydroxytryptamine immediate, intense stinging, throbbing, or burning sensation, shooting sensation, inflammatory rash, blistering of the skin, shock, collapse, in very rare cases death
sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri); northern and northeast Australia cardiotoxin immediate, extremely painful stinging sensation, seared reddened lines wherever the tentacles touch the skin, large indurated wheallike lesions, prostration, dizziness, circulatory failure, respiratory distress, rapid death in a high percentage of cases
sea anemone (Actinia equina); Mediterranean, Black Sea, etc. nature of venom unknown burning, stinging sensation, itching, swelling, redness, ulceration, nausea, vomiting, prostration; no specific antidote available
cone shell (Conus species); tropical Indo-Pacific region quaternary ammonium compounds and others blanching at the site of injection, cyanosis of the surrounding area, numbness, stinging or burning sensation, blurring of vision, loss of speech, difficulty in swallowing, nausea, extreme weakness, coma, and death in some cases; no specific antidote
spotted octopus (Octopus maculosus); Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean cephalotoxin, a neuromuscular poison sharp burning pain, similar to a bee sting, numbness of the mouth and tongue, blurring of vision, loss of tactile sensation, difficulty in speech and swallowing, paralysis of legs, nausea, prostration, coma, and death in a high percentage of cases
kissing bug (Triatoma species); Latin America, United States unknown bite usually painless; later itching, edema about the bite, nausea, palpitation, redness; the bite is of relatively minor importance but spreads Chagas disease caused by a trypanosome (protozoan)
puss caterpillar (Megalopyge species); United States, Latin America unknown stinging hairs of the caterpillar associated with poison-secreting glands; contact with the hairs produces an intense burning pain, itching, pustules, redness, nausea, fever, numbness, swelling, and paralysis; recovery usually within about six days
honeybee (Apis species); worldwide neurotoxin, hemolytic, melittin, hyaluronidase, phospholipase A, histamine, and others sting produces acute local pain or burning sensation, blanching at the site of the sting surrounded by a zone of redness, and itching; local symptoms usually disappear after 24 hours; severe cases may develop massive swelling, redness, shock, prostration, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, respiratory distress, trembling, coma, and death; it is estimated that 500 stings delivered in a short period of time can provide a lethal dose to a human; bees kill more people in the United States than do venomous reptiles
bumblebee (Bombus species); temperate regions similar to honeybee (Apis) venom stings are similar to honeybee (Apis) stings; bumblebees are not as vicious as honeybees
yellow jacket, hornet (Vespula species); temperate regions similar to bee venom; also acetylcholine they can both bite and sting; the sting is similar to that of the honeybee's but more painful; yellow jackets are quite aggressive; stings may be fatal
wasp (Polistes species and Vespa species); worldwide similar to bee venom; also acetylcholine wasps are less aggressive than hornets, and their sting is similar to the honeybee's but generally less painful than the hornet's; stings may be fatal
harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex species); United States bradykinin, formic acid, hyaluronidase, hemolytic, phospholipase A, and others ant stings cause immediate intense burning, pain, blanched area at site of sting surrounded by redness, ulceration, fever, blistering, itching, hemorrhaging into the skin, eczematoid dermatitis, pustules, respiratory distress, prostration, coma, and death in some instances
fire ant (Solenopsis species); United States, Latin America similar to harvester-ant venom similar to above; stings are very painful, burning sensation, etc.
millipede (Apheloria species and others); temperate areas hydrogen cyanide and benzaldehyde toxic liquid or gas from lateral glands causes inflammation, swelling, and blindness in contact with eyes, and brown stain, redness, swelling, and vesicle formation in contact with skin
centipede (Scolopendra species); temperate and tropical regions hemolytic phospholipase and serotonin local pain, swelling, and redness at bite site
brown spider (Loxosceles species); United States, South America, Europe, Asia cytotoxic, hyaluronidase, hemolytic, and others bite causes stinging sensation or burning pain, blanching at site of bite surrounded by redness, blistering, hemorrhages into the skin and internal organs, ulceration, vomiting, fever, cardiovascular collapse, convulsions, sometimes death
black widow (Latrodectus species); tropical and temperate regions neurotoxic bite may or may not be painful, two tiny red dots at site of bite, localized swelling after a few minutes; intense cramping pain of abdomen, legs, chest, back; rigidity of muscles lasting 12–48 hours, nausea, sweating, respiratory distress, priapism (abnormal, painful erection of the penis) in males, chills, skin rash, restlessness, fever, numbness, tingling; about 4 percent are fatal; antiserum is available
tarantula (Dugesiella and Lycosa species); temperate and tropical regions venom varies, usually mild most of the large tarantulas found in the United States, Mexico, and Central America are harmless to humans; some of the large tropical species may be more poisonous, but their effects are largely localized
scorpion (species of Centruroides, Tityus, and Leiurus); warm temperate and tropical regions neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, hemolytic, lecithinase, hyaluronidase, and others symptoms vary depending upon the species of scorpion; sting from the tail stinger causes a sharp burning sensation, swelling, sweating, restlessness, salivation, confusion, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, numbness, muscular twitching, respiratory distress, convulsions, death; the mortality rate from stings from certain species of scorpions is very high; antiserum is available
crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci); Indo-Pacific nature of poison unknown penetration of the spines produces a painful wound, redness, swelling, vomiting, numbness, and paralysis
long-spined sea urchin (Diadema setosum); Indo-Pacific nature of poison unknown penetration of the spines produces an immediate and intense burning sensation, redness, swelling, numbness, muscular paralysis
sea urchin (Toxopneustes pileolus); Indo-Pacific nature of poison unknown bites from the stinging jaws or pedicellariae (small pincerlike organs) produce an immediate, intense, radiating pain, faintness, numbness, muscular paralysis, respiratory distress, and occasionally death
Sharks and rays
stingray (Dasyatis species); warm temperate and tropical seas stingray venom, cardiotoxin, chemistry unknown penetration of the tail spines inflicts jagged painful wounds that produce sharp, shooting, throbbing pain, fall in blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, cardiac failure, muscular paralysis, rarely death; no known antidote; stingrays are among the most common causes of envenomations in the marine environment
Bony fishes
weever fish (Trachinus draco); Mediterranean Sea weever fish venom, chemistry unknown opercular and dorsal fin spines can produce instant pain, burning, stabbing or crushing sensation; pain spreads and becomes progressively more intense, causing the victim to scream with anguish and suffer loss of consciousness, numbness about the wound, swelling, redness, nausea, delirium, difficulty in breathing, convulsions, and death; no known antidote
scorpion fish (Scorpaena species); temperate and tropical seas scorpion fish venom, chemistry unknown fin spines can inflict painful stings and intense, immediate pain that may cause victim to scream followed by redness, swelling, loss of consciousness, ulceration of the wound, paralysis, cardiac failure, delirium, convulsions, nausea, prostration, and respiratory distress, but rarely death; no known antidote
stonefish (Synanceja species); Indo-Pacific region stonefish venom, chemistry unknown produces an extremely painful sting by means of the dorsal fin spines; symptoms similar to other scorpion fish stings but more serious
Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum); southwestern United States heloderma venom, primarily a neurotoxin all of the teeth are venomous; bite causes local pain, swelling, weakness, ringing of the ears, nausea, respiratory distress, cardiac failure; may cause death; no antiserum available
See as table:

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • poison — poisoner, n. poisonless, adj. poisonlessness, n. /poy zeuhn/, n. 1. a substance with an inherent property that tends to destroy life or impair health. 2. something harmful or pernicious, as to happiness or well being: the poison of slander. 3.… …   Universalium

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