in calligraphy, the headed ascenders or plumelike terminals to b, d, h, and l, in particular, which became an ornamental feature of the 16th-century italic bastarda script. At Venice in 1554, Vespasiano Amphiareo published models that combined an overdisciplined cancellaresca script with black-letter mercantile script mannerisms such as loops and running ligatures. From this hybrid the Vatican scriptor Gianfrancesco Cresci developed a highly cursive, free-flowing hand. His italic bastarda is topped off with accents at the end of ascenders made by doubling back at the start of the stroke and exerting a bit of pressure at that point on a rather flexible nib.
* * *