Sima Qian

Sima Qian

▪ Chinese historian and scientist
Wade-Giles romanization  Ssu-ma Ch'ien 
born c. 145, Longmen, Xiayang [now Hancheng, Shaanxi province], China
died c. 87 BC
 astronomer, calendar expert, and the first great Chinese historian. He is most noted for his authorship of the Shiji (“Historical Records”), which is considered to be the most important history of China down to the end of the 2nd century.

      Sima Qian was the son of Sima Tan, the grand historian (sometimes translated as “astronomer royal”) at the Han (Han dynasty) court during the period 140–110 BC. The office of grand historian combined responsibility for astronomical observations and for the regulation of the calendar with the duties of keeping a daily record of state events and court ceremonies. After traveling extensively in his youth, Sima Qian entered court service. In 111 BC he accompanied a military expedition into the southwest of China, and in 110 BC he was a member of the Wudi emperor's entourage when the latter visited Mount Tai to conduct the sacrifices symbolizing the dynasty's authority. In the same year, his father died, and after the mandatory period of mourning he was appointed in 108 BC to succeed him in the post of grand historian.

      In 105 he was among those responsible for a complete reform of the Chinese calendar, a reform prompted by the Wudi emperor's inauguration of what was to be a “new beginning” to the Han dynasty. At about the same time, Sima Qian began to undertake the unfulfilled ambition of his father to write a definitive history of the Chinese past, an ambition strengthened by his belief that under Wudi the Han had reached a peak of achievement that deserved to be recorded for posterity. Before his history was completed, however, Sima Qian deeply offended the emperor by coming to the defense of a disgraced general. Sima Qian was arraigned for “defaming the emperor,” a capital crime. Either because the emperor felt him too valuable a man to lose or because Sima Qian himself requested a reprieve so that he could complete his history, he was castrated instead of executed.

      Wudi later relented, and Sima Qian again rose in the imperial favour, becoming palace secretary (zhongshuling). But he remained bitterly conscious of the shame he had suffered and lived a retiring life, devoting himself to the completion of his great masterpiece.

Structure and content of Shiji
      The Shiji is his great claim to fame. There had, of course, been many histories before Sima Qian's time. The keeping of court chronicles was already an established practice under the earlier dynasties. One such work, the Chunqiu (“Spring and Autumn [Annals]”) of the petty state of Lu, was said to have been the work of Confucius. It had achieved status as a canonical book largely because of its ethical judgments on the events that it recounts.

      Sima Qian denied that his work was in any way comparable to this great Classic. He termed himself not a “maker,” like Confucius, but merely a “transmitter” of past events. His great successor as historian of the Han, Ban Gu (AD 32?–92), took him to task for his haphazard use of ideas from the various schools of philosophy and for his devotion to Daoism. But the ethical standards of Han Confucianism that Ban Gu and his contemporaries could take for granted had not in Sima Qian's lifetime achieved the authority they had by the 1st century AD. Like most of his contemporaries, Sima Qian was an eclectic, employed at a court at which magic and the supernatural were still deemed potent forces and where the state religious cult and accepted moral and political standards were still in a fluid state. Sima Qian's moral judgments are, thus, not in accordance with any consistent theories.

      His main achievement was that he reduced to an orderly narrative the complex events of the past, recorded in often contradictory sources deriving from the many independent states, each of which employed its own chronology. He organized these facts not, as in previous histories, simply as a chronologically ordered record but according to a new five-part plan. The “Basic Annals” gave a dated chronological outline centred on events at the court considered to have been the paramount power at the time. The following section consisted of chronological tables in which he attempted to clarify the confusion of the history of the various independent feudal kingdoms and to enable his reader to see at a glance what was happening in each of the states at any given time. The detailed accounts of each state were given in chapters entitled “The Hereditary Houses.” A number of monographs dealt with various crucial aspects of government. These sections show Sima Qian to have favoured the practical reformist statesmen who, in his own time, were formulating new policies for the increasingly centralized state, rather than the proponents of Confucian moral theories. The work ends with a collection of “Biographies” that deal with a variety of famous individuals, who are selected as exemplars of various types of conduct, and also with the affairs of the various foreign peoples, relations with whom were beginning to become increasingly important during the reign of Wudi.

      The Shiji provided a model for the later dynastic histories but differs from them in many ways. Its time span is far longer: such attempts to encompass the whole of human history were rare among later Chinese historians. Its source material, too, was far more varied. It incorporated not only the court annals of the Jin (Jin dynasty) and the Han (Han dynasty) dynasties but also various earlier histories, parts of court chronicles of various feudal states, and material from the canonical books and the philosophical writings of all the schools, even historical romances. Neither is his subject matter exclusively court-centred and “political,” as were the later histories; it includes a far wider range of society, including businessmen and merchants, condottieri and bandits, actors and court favourites, good officials and bad.

      Sima Qian did not attempt to compose “objective” history but rather belonged unmistakably to the didactic Chinese tradition of history. He makes moral judgments on his characters. He also attempts to characterize them in types, recording an individual's exemplary deeds in one chapter and his misdeeds elsewhere. But the lessons he derives from history are varied and often mutually incompatible. He is much more notable for the critical attention he devotes to his sources. His acute critical comments are appended at the end of each chapter.

      Sima Qian is important not only as a historian but also as a master of racy, flexible Chinese prose. He exerted a potent influence on later writers, particularly upon the early writers of narrative prose and fiction. Since Sima Qian's time, his history has been acknowledged as the great historical masterpiece in Chinese, a standard against which all later histories would be measured and a model for large-scale historical composition, not only in China but in all East Asian countries influenced by the Chinese literary tradition.

Denis C. Twitchett

Additional Reading
The standard study of Sima Qian is the extremely perceptive work of Burton Watson, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Grand Historian of China (1958), which gives a full critical analysis of Sima Qian's works and also translates all the relevant biographical material from early sources. Édouard Chavannes, Les Mémoires historiques de Sema-Ts'ien, 5 vol. (1895–1905), translated the first 47 chapters of the Shiji with copious scholarly annotation. A sixth volume (1969) includes further translations by Chavannes and a bibliography of Western-language translations. Much of the remaining portion is translated in Burton Watson, The Records of the Grand Historian of China, 2 vol. (1961, reprinted 1971), which deals entirely with sections on the Han period. Later treatments include Stephen W. Durrant, The Cloudy Mirror: Tensions and Conflict in the Writings of Sima Qian (1995); and Grant Hardy, Worlds of Bronze and Bamboo: Sima Qian's Conquest of History (1999).

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Universalium. 2010.

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