Sima Guang

Sima Guang

▪ Chinese scholar
Wade-Giles romanization  Ssu-ma Kuang  
born Nov. 17, 1019, Guangzhou [now Guangshan, Henan province], China
died 1086, Kaifeng, Henan

      scholar, statesman, and poet who compiled the monumental Zizhi tongjian (“Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government”), a general chronicle of Chinese history from 403 BC to AD 959, considered one of the finest single historical works in Chinese. Known for his moral uprightness, he was learned in several disciplines and prominent in government.

      Sima Guang studied the Confucian Classics and, after passing the civil-service examinations, rose rapidly to high office. Between 1069 and 1085 he led the faction opposing the radical reforms of the innovator Wang Anshi. Conservative in his interpretation of the Confucian Classics, Sima argued for the cause of good government through moral leadership rather than by assertive measures and through the improved functioning of tested institutions rather than by drastic changes. Shortly before his death he finally succeeded in dislodging Wang's faction from the government and became the leading minister in a government that attempted to repeal most of Wang's reforms. Until recent times most historians tended to view Sima favourably and Wang from an opposite viewpoint, but recent historical work has shown that Sima's program of antireform measures was not greatly successful.

      With chosen associates, Sima compiled the Zizhi tongjian in emulation of the Chunqiu (“Spring and Autumn [Annals],” a chronicle believed to have been edited by Confucius). Sima criticized men and institutions from the standpoint of Confucian moral principles. He devoted most of his attention to political events, but the work also covered such diverse subjects as rites, music, astronomy, geography, and economy. In spite of Sima's moral perspective, his chronicle showed evidence of rigorous critical standards. He even compiled a separate work, the Gaoyi (“Scrutiny”), which dealt with the discrepancies in his numerous sources and gave his reasons for preferring certain authorities.

      Sima was also an excellent poet and is the hero of modern Chinese children's books, which portray him as the child who saved a playmate from drowning by breaking the water tank into which his friend had fallen.

Additional Reading
W.G. Beasley and E.G. Pulleyblank (eds.), Historians of China and Japan (1961); C.S. Gardner, Chinese Traditional Historiography (1961); J.T.C. Liu, Reform in Sung China (1959).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sima Guang — Sīmǎ Guāng (Zh cw|c=司馬光/司马光|w=Ssu ma Kuang, 1019 1086) was a Chinese historian, scholar, and high chancellor of the Song Dynasty.Life, profession, and worksHe was born in 1019 in present day Yuncheng, Shanxi to a wealthy family, and obtained… …   Wikipedia

  • Sima Guang — Sīmǎ Guāng Sīmǎ Guāng tel que représenté dans le Wan hsiao tang Chu chuang Hua chuan(晩笑堂竹荘畫傳), publié en 1921 Sīmǎ Guāng (1019 1086) (chinois : 司馬光/司马光 ; Wade Giles : Ssu ma Kuang) était un historien et érudit chinois ainsi qu un… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sīmǎ Guāng — tel que représenté dans le Wan hsiao tang Chu chuang Hua chuan(晩笑堂竹荘畫傳), publié en 1921 Sīmǎ Guāng (1019 1086) (chinois : 司馬光/司马光 ; Wade Giles : Ssu ma Kuang) était un historien et érudit chinois ainsi qu un homme d État de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • SIMA GUANG — [SSEU MA KOUANG] (1019 1086) Un des grands lettrés de l’époque Song, historien et homme politique, contemporain de Wang Anshi, dont il fut un des ardents adversaires. Sima Guang a déjà une longue carrière administrative derrière lui quand son… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Sima Guang — Sima Guang,   Ssu ma Kuang, chinesischer Staatsmann und Historiograph, * Xia (Provinz Henan) 1019, ✝ 1086; streng konfuzianisch gesinnter hoher Beamter und in der einflussreichen Position als Zensor Hauptgegner des Wang Anshi und seiner Reformen; …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Sima Guang — Familienname: Sīmǎ (司馬) Rufname: Gu …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sima Shi — (chinesisch 司馬師), Großjährigkeitsname Ziyuan (chinesisch 子元; * um 208; † 255), war ein Beamter der Wei Dynastie zur Zeit der Drei Reiche im alten China. Im Jahre 249 stürzte er mit seinem Vater Sima Yi den Regenten des Wei Kaisers Cao… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sima Zhao — (sitzend). Illustration einer Qing Ausgabe der Geschichte der Drei Reiche. Sima Zhao (chinesisch 司馬昭; * 211; † 265), Großjährigkeitsname Zishang (chinesisch 子上), war der Sohn von Sima Yi, dem Oberbefehlsh …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sima Shi — Naissance 208 (approximatif) décès 255 Xuchang(許昌) Noms Chinois simplifié 司马师 Chinois traditionnel 司馬師 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sima Qian — (ca. 145 ndash;86 BC) was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes (太史令) of the Han Dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography because of his highly praised work, Records of the Grand Historian (史記), an overview of the history of China …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”