- seed and fruit
▪ plant reproductive partIntroductionrespectively, the characteristic reproductive (reproductive system, plant) body of both angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (conifers, cycads, and ginkgos) and the ovary that encloses it. Essentially, a seed consists of a miniature, undeveloped plant (the embryo), which, alone or in the company of stored food for its early development after germination, is surrounded by a protective coat (the testa). Frequently small in size and making negligible demands upon their environment, seeds are eminently suited to perform a wide variety of functions the relationships of which are not always obvious: multiplication, perennation (surviving seasons of stress such as winter), dormancy (a state of arrested development), and dispersal. Pollination and the “seed habit” are considered the most important factors responsible for the overwhelming evolutionary success of the flowering plants, which number more than 300,000 species.The superiority of dispersal by means of seeds over the more primitive method involving single-celled spores, lies mainly in two factors: the stored reserve of nutrient (nutrition) material that gives the new generation an excellent growing start and the seed's multicellular structure, which provides ample opportunity for the development of adaptations for dispersal, such as plumes for wind dispersal, barbs, and others.Economically, seeds and the fruits that contain them are important primarily because they are sources of a variety of foods; for example, the cereal grains, such as wheat, rice, and maize; the seeds of beans, peas, peanuts, soybeans, almonds, sunflowers, hazelnuts, walnuts, pecans, and Brazil nuts; the fruits of date palm, olive, banana, avocado, apple, and orange. Many fruits, especially those in the citrus family—limes, lemons, oranges, grapefruits—are rich in vitamin C (ascorbic acid); unpolished cereal grains in vitamin B1 (thiamine); and wheat germ in vitamin E. Other useful products provided by seeds and fruits are abundant. Oils (oil) for cooking, margarine production, painting, and lubrication are available from the seeds of flax, rape, cotton, soybean, poppy, castor bean, coconut, sesame, safflower, sunflower, the cereal grains of maize, and the fruits of olive and oil palm. Essential oils are obtained from such sources as juniper “berries,” used in gin manufacture. Waxes such as those from bayberries (wax myrtles) and vegetable ivory from the hard fruits of a South American palm species (Phytelephas macrocarpa) are important products. Stimulants (stimulant) are obtained from such sources as the seeds of coffee, kola, guarana, and cocoa; and drugs, such as morphine, come from opium-poppy fruits. Spices (spice and herb)—from mustard and nutmeg seeds; from the aril (“mace”) covering the nutmeg seed; from fruits of anise, cumins, caraway, dill, vanilla, black pepper, red or chili pepper, allspice, and others—form a large group of economic products. Dyes (Persian berries, butternut brown, sap green) and ornaments (Job's tears from the grass Coix, used for curtains; Abrus, Adenanthera, and Rhynchosia seeds for necklaces; others for rosaries) are also provided by seeds and fruits.The nature of seeds and fruitsSeedsangiosperm seedsIn the typical flowering plant, or angiosperm, seeds are formed from bodies called ovules (ovule) contained in the ovary, or basal part of the female plant structure, the pistil. The mature ovule contains in its central part a region called the nucellus that in turn contains an embryo sac with eight nuclei (nucleus), each with one set of chromosomes (i.e., they are haploid nuclei). The two nuclei near the centre are referred to as polar nuclei; the egg cell, or oosphere, is situated near the micropylar (“open”) end of the ovule.With very few exceptions (e.g., the dandelion), development of the ovule into a seed is dependent upon fertilization, which in turn follows pollination. pollen grains that land on the receptive upper surface (stigma) of the pistil will germinate, if they are of the same species, and produce pollen tubes, each of which grows down within the style (the upper part of the pistil) toward an ovule. The pollen tube has three haploid nuclei, one of them, the so-called vegetative, or tube, nucleus seems to direct the operations of the growing structure. The other two, the generative nuclei, can be thought of as nonmotile sperm cells. After reaching an ovule and breaking out of the pollen tube tip, one generative nucleus unites with the egg cell to form a diploid zygote (i.e., a fertilized egg with two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent), which, through a limited number of divisions gives rise to an embryo. The other generative nucleus fuses with the two polar nuclei to produce a triploid (three sets of chromosomes) nucleus, which divides repeatedly before cell-wall formation occurs, producing the triploid endosperm, a nutrient tissue that contains a variety of storage materials—such as starch, sugars, fats, proteins, hemicelluloses, and phytic acid (a phosphate reserve).The events just described constitute what is called the double-fertilization process, one of the characteristic features of all flowering plants. In the orchids and in some other plants with minute seeds that contain no reserve materials, endosperm formation is completely suppressed. In other cases it is greatly reduced, but the reserve materials are present elsewhere—e.g., in the cotyledons, or seed leaves, of the embryo, as in beans, lettuce, and peanuts, or in a tissue derived from the nucellus, the perisperm, as in coffee. Other seeds, such as those of beets, contain both perisperm and endosperm. The seed coat, or testa, is derived from the one or two protective integuments of the ovule. The ovary, in the simplest case, develops into a fruit. In many plants, such as the grasses and lettuce, the outer integument and ovary wall are completely fused, so that seed and fruit form one entity; thus seeds and fruits can logically be described together as “dispersal units,” or diaspores. More often, however, the seeds are discrete units attached to the placenta on the inside of the fruit wall through a stalk, or funiculus.The hilum of a liberated seed is a small scar marking its former place of attachment. The short ridge (raphe) that sometimes leads away from the hilum is formed by the fusion of seed stalk and testa. In many seeds, the micropyle of the ovule also persists as a small opening in the seed coat. The embryo, variously located in the seed, may be very small (as in buttercups) or may fill the seed almost completely (as in roses and plants of the mustard family). It consists of a root part, or radicle, a prospective shoot (plumule or epicotyl), one or more cotyledons (cotyledon) (one or two in flowering plants, several in Pinus), and a hypocotyl, which is a region that connects radicle and plumule. A classification of seeds can be based on size and position of the embryo and on the proportion of embryo to storage tissue; the possession of either one or two cotyledons is considered crucial in recognizing two main groups of flowering plants, the Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones.Seedlings, arising from embryos in the process of germination, are classified as epigeal (cotyledons above ground, usually green and capable of photosynthesis) and hypogeal (cotyledons below ground). Particularly in the monocots, special absorbing organs may develop that mobilize the reserve materials and withdraw them from the endosperm; e.g., in the grasses, the cotyledon has been modified into an enzyme-secreting scutellum (“shield”) between embryo and endosperm.gymnosperm seedsIn gymnosperms (plants with “naked seeds”—conifers, cycads, ginkgos) the ovules are not enclosed in an ovary but lie exposed on leaflike structures, the megasporophylls. A long time span separates pollination and fertilization, and the ovules begin to develop into seeds long before fertilization has been accomplished; in some cases, in fact, fertilization does not occur until the ovules (“seeds”) have been shed from the tree. In the European pine Pinus sylvestris, for example, the female cones (essentially collections of megasporophylls) begin to develop in winter and are ready to receive pollen from the male cones in spring. During the first growing season, the pollen tube grows slowly through the nucellus, while within the ovule the megaspore nucleus, through a series of divisions, gives rise to a collection of some 2,000 nuclei, which are then individually enclosed by walls to form a structure called the female gametophyte or prothallus (prothallium). At the micropylar end of the ovule, several archegonia (bottle-shaped female organs) develop, each containing an oosphere (“egg”). The pollen tube ultimately penetrates the neck of one of the archegonia. Not until the second growing season, however, does the nucleus of one of the male cells in the tube unite with the oosphere nucleus. Although more than one archegonium may be fertilized, only one gives rise to a viable embryo. During the latter's development, part of the prothallus is broken down and used. The remainder, referred to as “endosperm,” surrounds the embryo; it is mobilized later, during germination of the seed, a process that occurs without delay when the seeds are liberated from the female cone during the third year after their initiation.Fruits (fruit)The concept “fruit” is based on such an odd mixture of practical and theoretical considerations that it accommodates cases in which one flower gives rise to several fruits (larkspur) as well as cases in which several flowers cooperate in producing one fruit (mulberry). Pea and bean plants, exemplifying the simplest situation, show in each flower a single pistil, traditionally thought of as a megasporophyll or carpel. The carpel is believed to be the evolutionary product of an originally leaflike organ bearing ovules along its margin, but somehow folded along the median line, with a meeting and coalescing of the margins of each half, the result being a miniature, closed but hollow pod with one row of ovules along the suture. In many members of the rose and buttercup families each flower contains a number of similar single-carpelled pistils, separate and distinct, which together represent what is known as an apocarpous gynoecium. In still other cases, two to several carpels (still thought of as megasporophylls, although perhaps not always justifiably) are assumed to have fused to produce a single compound gynoecium (pistil), whose basal part or ovary may be uniloculate (one cavity) or pluriloculate (with several compartments), depending on the method of carpel fusion. Most fruits develop from a single pistil. A fruit resulting from the apocarpous gynoecium (several pistils) of a single flower may be referred to as an aggregate fruit; a multiple fruit represents the gynoecia of several flowers. When additional flower parts, such as the stem axis or floral tube, are retained or participate in fruit formation, as in the apple, an accessory fruit results.Certain plants, mostly cultivated varieties, spontaneously produce fruits in the absence of pollination and fertilization; such natural parthenocarpy leads to seedless fruits such as bananas, oranges, grapes, grapefruits, and cucumbers. Since 1934 seedless fruits of tomato, cucumber, peppers, holly, and others also have been obtained for commercial use by administering growth hormones (hormone), such as indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid, naphthalene acetic acid, and beta-naphthoxyacetic acid to ovaries in flowers (induced parthenocarpy).Classification of fruitsClassification systems for mature fruits take into account the number of carpels constituting the original ovary; dehiscence (opening) versus nondehiscence; and dryness versus fleshiness. The properties of the ripened ovary wall, or pericarp, which may develop entirely or in part into fleshy, fibrous, or stony tissue, are important. Often, three distinct pericarp layers can be distinguished: the outer (exocarp), the middle (mesocarp), and the inner (endocarp). All purely morphological systems (i.e., classification schemes based on structural features), including the one given in Table 1 (Classification of fruits), are artificial. They ignore the fact that fruits can only be understood functionally and dynamically.Classification of fruits Classification of fruits Classification of fruitsAs strikingly exemplified by the word nut, popular terms often do not properly describe the botanical nature of certain fruits. A Brazil “nut,” for example, is a thick-walled seed enclosed in a likewise thick-walled capsule along with several sister seeds. A coconut is a drupe (a stony-seeded fruit; see Table 1 (Classification of fruits)) with a fibrous outer part. A walnut is a drupe in which the pericarp has differentiated into a fleshy outer husk and an inner hard “shell”; the “meat” represents the seed—two large, convoluted cotyledons, a minute epicotyl and hypocotyl, and a thin, papery seed coat. A peanut is an indehiscent legume fruit. An almond “nut” is the “stone”—i.e., the hardened endocarp of a drupe usually containing a single seed. Botanically speaking, blackberries and raspberries are not “berries” but aggregates of tiny drupes. A juniper “berry” is comparable to a complete pine cone. A mulberry is a multiple fruit (see Table 1 (Classification of fruits)) composed of small nutlets surrounded by fleshy sepals; a strawberry represents a much swollen receptacle (the tip of the flower stalk bearing the flower parts) bearing on its convex surface an aggregation of tiny achenes (small, single-seeded fruits; see Table 1 (Classification of fruits)).Form and functionSeed sizeIn the Late Carboniferous Period (about 280,000,000 to 325,000,000 years ago) some seed ferns produced large seeds (12 × 6 centimetres [5 × 2 inches] in Pachytesta incrassata). This primitive, ancestral condition of large seeds is reflected in certain gymnosperms (Cycas circinalis, 5.5 × 4 centimetres; Araucaria bidwillii, 4.5 × 3.5 centimetres) and also in some tropical rain-forest trees with nondormant, water-rich seeds (Mora excelsa, 12 × 7 centimetres). The “double coconut” palm Lodoicea maldivica represents the extreme, with seeds weighing up to 27 kilograms (about 60 pounds). Herbaceous, nontropical flowering plants usually have seeds weighing in the range of about 0.0001 to 0.01 grams. Within a given family (e.g., the pea family, Fabaceae or Leguminosae) seed size may vary greatly; in others it is consistently large or small, justifying the recognition of “megaspermous” families (e.g., the beech, nutmeg, palm, and soursop families) and “microspermous” ones (e.g., the milkweed, daisy, heather, nettle, and willow families). The smallest known seeds, devoid of food reserves, are found in orchids, saprophytes (nongreen plants that absorb nutrients from dead organic matter—e.g., Indian pipe, Monotropa; coral root, Corallorhiza), carnivorous plants (sundews, pitcher plants), and total parasites (members of the families Rafflesiaceae and Orobanchaceae, or broomrapes, which latter have seeds weighing about 0.001 milligrams—about 3.5 hundred-millionths of an ounce). Clearly, seed size is related to life-style—total parasites (parasitism) obtain food from their host, even in their early growth stages, and young orchids are saprophytes that receive assistance in absorbing nutrients from fungi that associate closely with their roots. In both cases only very small seeds that lack endosperm are produced. Dodders (Cuscuta) and mistletoes (Viscum, Phoradendron) live independently when very young and accordingly have relatively large seeds. Many plant species possess seeds of remarkably uniform size, useful as beads (e.g., Abrus precatorius) or units of weight—one carat of weight once corresponded with one seed of the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua. In wheat and many other plants, average seed size does not depend on planting density, showing that seed size is under rather strict genetic (heredity) control. This does not necessarily preclude significant variations among individual seeds; in peas, for example, the seeds occupying the central region of the pod are the largest, probably as the result of competition for nutrients between developing ovules on the placenta. Striking evolutionary changes in seed size, inadvertently created by man, have occurred in the weed Camelina sativa subspecies linicola, which grows in flax fields. The customary winnowing of flax seeds selects forms of Camelina whose seeds are blown over the same distance as flax seeds in the operation, thus staying with their “models.” Consequently, Camelina seeds in the south of Russia now mimic the relatively thick, heavy seeds of the oil flax that is grown there, whereas in the northwest they resemble the flat, thin seeds of the predominant fibre flax.Seed size and predationSeeds form the main source of food for many birds, rodents, ants, and beetles. Harvester ants (harvester ant) of the genus Veromessor, for example, exact a toll of about 15,000,000 seeds per acre per year from the Sonoran Desert of the southwestern United States. In view of the enormous size range of the predators, which include minute weevil and bruchid-beetle larvae that attack the seeds internally, evolutionary “manipulation” of seed size by a plant species cannot in itself be effective in completely avoiding seed attack. With predation inescapable, however, it must be advantageous for a plant species to invest the total reproductive effort in a large number of very small units (seeds) rather than in a few big ones. The mean seed weight of those 13 species of Central American woody legumes vulnerable to bruchid attack is 0.26 gram; for the 23 species invulnerable by virtue of toxic seed constituents it is three grams.Seed size and germinationEcologically, seed size is also important in the breaking of dormancy. Being small, a seed can only “sample” that part of the environment immediately adjacent to it, which is not necessarily representative of the generally prevailing conditions. For successful seedling establishment, there is clearly a risk in “venturing out” too soon. The development in seeds of mechanisms acting as “integrating rain gauges” (see below) should be considered in that light.The shape of dispersal unitsApart from the importance of shape as a factor in determining the mode of dispersal (e.g., wind dispersal of winged seeds, animal dispersal of spiny fruits), shape also counts when the seed or diaspore is seen as a landing device. The flatness of the enormous tropical Mora seeds prevents rolling and effectively restricts germination to the spot where they land. In contrast, Eusideroxylon zwageri does not grow on steep slopes because its heavy fruits roll downhill. The grains of the grass Panicum turgidum, which have a flat and a round side, germinate much better when the flat rather than the convex side lies in contact with wet soil. In very small seeds, the importance of shape can be judged only by taking into account soil clod size and microtopography of the soils onto which they are dropped. The rounded seeds of cabbage species, for example, tend to roll into crevices, whereas the reticulate ones of lamb's quarters often stay in the positions in which they first fall. Several seeds have appendages (awns, bristles) that promote germination by aiding in orientation and self-burial. In one study, for example, during a six-month period, awned grains of Danthonia penicillata gave rise to 12 times as many established seedlings as de-awned ones.Polymorphism of seeds and fruitsSome plant species produce two or more sharply defined types of seeds that differ in appearance (colour), shape, size, internal structure, or dormancy. In common spurry (Spergula arvensis), for example, the seed coat (part of the mother plant) may be either smooth or papillate (covered with tiny nipple-like projections). Here, the phenomenon is genetically controlled by a single factor, so that all the seeds of a given plant are either papillate or smooth. More common is somatic polymorphism, the production by individual plants of different seed types, or “morphs.” Somatic polymorphism occurs regularly in Atriplex and Chenopodium (goosefoot), in which a single plant may produce both large brown seeds capable of immediate germination and small black ones with some innate dormancy. Somatic polymorphism may be controlled by the position of the two (or more) seed types within one inflorescence (flower cluster) or fruit, as in cocklebur, or it may result from environmental effects, as in Halogeton, in which imposition of long or short days leads to production of brown and black seeds, respectively. Since the different morphs in seed (and fruit) polymorphism usually have different dispersal mechanisms and dormancies, so that germination is spread out both in space and in time, the phenomenon can be seen as an insurance against catastrophe. The most spectacular example of heterocarpy (i.e., production of differing fruit) is found in the Mediterranean Fedia cornucopiae (family Valerianaceae), which has three astonishingly different kinds of fruits that show adaptations to dispersal by wind and water, ants, and larger animals, respectively.Agents of dispersalThe dispersing (dispersion) agents for seeds and fruits are indicated in such terms as anemochory, hydrochory, and zoochory, which mean dispersal by wind, water, and animals, respectively. Within the zoochorous group further differentiation according to the carriers can be made: saurochory, dispersal by reptiles; ornithochory, by birds; myrmecochory, by ants. Or the manner in which the diaspores are carried can be emphasized, distinguishing endozoochory, diaspores carried within the animal; epizoochory, diaspores accidentally carried on the outside; and synzoochory, diaspores intentionally carried, mostly in the mouth as in birds and ants.Dispersal by animalsSnails disperse the small seeds of a very few plant species (e.g., Adoxa). Earthworms are more important as seed dispersers. Many intact fruits and seeds can serve as fish bait, those of Sonneratia, for example, for the catfish Arius maculatus. Certain Amazon River fishes react positively to the audible “explosions” of the ripe fruits of Eperua rubiginosa. Fossil evidence indicates that saurochory is very ancient. The giant Galapagos tortoise is important for the dispersal of local cacti and tomatoes. The name alligator apple for Annona palustris refers to its method of dispersal, an example of saurochory. Many mammals, ranging in size from mice and kangaroo rats to elephants, eat and disperse seeds and fruits. In the tropics, chiropterochory (dispersal by large bats (bat) such as flying foxes, Pteropus) is particularly important. Fruits adapted to these animals are relatively large and drab in colour, with large seeds and a striking (often rank) odour; they are accessible to bats because of the pagoda-like structure of the tree canopy, fruit placement on the main trunk, or suspension from long stalks that hang free of the foliage. Examples include mangoes, guavas, breadfruit, carob, and several fig species. In South Africa, a desert melon (Cucumis humifructus) participates in a symbiotic relationship with aardvarks (aardvark)—the animals eat the fruit for its water content and bury their own dung, which contains the seeds, near their burrows. Furry terrestrial mammals are the agents most frequently involved in epizoochory, the inadvertent carrying by animals of dispersal units. Burrlike seeds and fruits, or those diaspores provided with spines, hooks, claws, bristles, barbs, grapples, and prickles, are genuine hitchhikers, clinging tenaciously to their carriers. Their functional shape is achieved in various ways—in cleavers, or goose grass (Galium aparine), and enchanter's nightshade (Circaea lutetiana) the hooks are part of the fruit itself; in common agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) the fruit is covered by a persistent calyx (the sepals, parts of the flower, which remain attached beyond the usual period) equipped with hooks; in wood avens (Geum urbanum) the persistent styles have hooked tips. Other examples are bur marigolds, or beggar's-ticks (Bidens species); buffalo burr (Solanum rostratum); burdock (Arctium); Acaena; and many Medicago species. The last-named, with dispersal units highly resistant to damage from hot water and certain chemicals (dyes), have achieved wide global distribution through the wool trade. A somewhat different principle is employed by the so-called trample burrs, said to lodge themselves between the hooves of large grazing mammals. Examples are mule grab (Proboscidea) and the African grapple plant (Harpagophytum). In water burrs, such as those of the water nut Trapa, the spines should probably be considered as anchoring devices.Dispersal by birds (pollination)Birds, being preening animals, rarely carry burrlike diaspores on their bodies. They do, however, transport the very sticky (viscid) fruits of Pisonia, a tropical tree of the four-o'clock family, to distant Pacific islands in this way. Small diaspores, such as those of sedges and certain grasses, may also be carried in the mud sticking to waterfowl and terrestrial birds.Synzoochory, deliberate carrying of diaspores by animals, is practiced when birds carry diaspores in their beaks. The European mistle thrush, Turdus viscivorus, deposits the viscid seeds of mistletoe (Viscum album) on potential host plants when, after a meal of the berries, it whets its bill on branches or simply regurgitates the seeds. The North American mistletoes (Phoradendron) are dispersed by various birds, and the comparable tropical species of the plant family Loranthaceae by flowerpeckers (of the bird family Dicaeidae), which have a highly specialized gizzard that allows seeds to pass through but retains insects. Plants may also profit from the forgetfulness and sloppy habits of certain nut-eating birds that cache part of their food but neglect to recover everything, or drop units on their way to the hiding place. Best known in this respect are the nutcrackers (Nucifraga), which feed largely on the “nuts” of beech, oak, walnut, chestnut, and hazel; the jays (Garrulus), which hide hazelnuts and acorns; the nuthatches; and the California woodpecker (Balanosphyra), which may embed literally thousands of acorns, almonds, and pecan nuts in bark fissures or holes of trees. Secondarily, rodents may aid in dispersal by stealing the embedded diaspores and burying them. In Germany an average jay may transport about 4,600 acorns per season, over distances of up to four kilometres (2.5 miles). Woodpeckers, nutcrackers, and squirrels are responsible for a similar dispersal of Pinus cembra in the Alps near the tree line.Most ornithochores (plants with bird-dispersed seeds) have conspicuous diaspores attractive to such fruit-eating birds as thrushes, pigeons, barbets (members of the bird family Capitonidae), toucans, and hornbills (family Bucerotidae), all of which either excrete or regurgitate the hard part undamaged. Such diaspores have a fleshy, sweet, or oil-containing edible part; a striking colour (often red or orange); no pronounced smell; a protection against being eaten prematurely in the form of acids and tannic compounds that are present only in the green fruit; a protection of the seed against digestion—bitterness, hardness, or the presence of poisonous compounds; permanent attachment; and, finally, absence of a hard outer cover. In contrast to bat-dispersed diaspores, they occupy no special position on the plant. Examples are rose hips, plums, dogwood fruits, barberry, red currant, mulberry, nutmeg fruits, figs, blackberries, and others. The natural and abundant occurrence of Evonymus (cardinal's hat), essentially a tropical genus, in temperate Europe and Asia, can be understood only in connection with the activities of birds. Birds also contributed substantially to the repopulation with plants of the island Krakatoa after the catastrophic eruption of 1883. Birds have made Lantana (originally American) a pest in Indonesia; the same is true of wild plums (Prunus serotina) in parts of Europe and Rubus species in Brazil and New Zealand.mimicry—the protection-affording imitation of a dangerous or toxic species by an edible, harmless one—is shown in reverse by certain bird-dispersed “coral seeds” such as those of many species in the genera Abrus, Ormosia, Rhynchosia, Adenanthera, and Erythrina. Hard and often shiny red or black and red, many such seeds deceptively suggest the presence of a fleshy red aril and thus invite the attention of hungry birds.Dispersal by ants (ant)Mediterranean and North American harvester ants (Messor, Atta, Tetramorium, and Pheidole) are essentially destructive, storing and fermenting many seeds and eating them completely. Other ants (Lasius, Myrmica, and Formica species) eat the fleshy, edible appendage (the fat body or elaiosome) of certain specialized seeds, which they disperse. Most myrmecochorous plants (species of violet, primrose, hepatica, cyclamen, anemone, corydalis, Trillium, and bloodroot) belong to the herbaceous spring flora of northern forests. Tree poppy (Dendromecon), however, is found in the dry California chaparral; Melica and Centaurea species in arid Mediterranean regions. The so-called ant epiphytes of the tropics (i.e., species of Hoya, Dischidia, Aeschynanthus, and Myrmecodia—plants that live in “ant gardens” on trees or offer the ants shelter in their own body cavities) constitute a special group of myrmecochores, providing oil in seed hairs, which in ancestral forms must have served in wind dispersal. The primary ant attractant of myrmecochorous seeds is not necessarily oil; instead, an unsaturated, somewhat volatile fatty acid is suspected in some cases. The myrmecochorous plant as a whole may also have specific adaptations; for example, Cyclamen brings fruits and seeds within reach of ants by conspicuous coiling (shortening) of the flower stalk as soon as flowering is over.Dispersal by windIn the modern world, wind dispersal (although numerically important) reflects the climatic and biotic poverty of certain regions; it is essentially a feature of pioneer vegetations. The flora of the Alps is 60 percent anemochorous, that of the Mediterranean garrigue 50 percent. By making certain assumptions (e.g., for average wind velocity and turbulence) the “average limits of dispersal”—that is, the distance that 1 percent of the diaspores can reach—can be calculated for dispersal units of various construction and weight. This calculation yields values of 10 kilometres (six miles) for dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and 0.5 kilometre (0.3 mile) for European pine (Pinus sylvestris). Storms result in higher values—30 kilometres (20 miles) for poplar and 200 kilometres (125 miles) for Senecio congestus.Too much success in dispersal may be ecologically futile, as exemplified by certain Florida orchids that arise from windblown West Indian seeds but do not multiply because of the lack of specific pollinators; usually certain bees or wasps. Anemochorous diaspores can be subdivided into flyers, dust diaspores, balloons, and plumed or winged diaspores; rollers, chamaechores or tumbleweeds; and throwers, ballistic anemochores. Dispersal by means of minute dust diaspores produced in huge quantities is comparable to spore dispersal in lower plants—a “saturation bombing” is required to find the very limited number of targets, or favourable growth habitats, that exist. Not surprisingly, it is practiced mostly by total parasites, such as broomrapes (in which the finding of the specific host is a problem), and saprophytes. The inflated, indehiscent pods of Colutea arborea, a steppe plant, represent balloons capable of limited air travel before they hit the ground and become windblown tumbleweeds. Winged fruits are most common in trees and shrubs, such as maple, ash, elm, birch, alder, and dipterocarps (a family of about 600 species of Old World tropical trees). The one-winged propeller type, as found in maple, is called a samara. When fruits have several wings on their sides, rotation may result, as in rhubarb and dock species. Sometimes accessory parts form the wings—for example, the bracts (small green leaflike structures that grow just below flowers) in Tilia (linden). Seeds with a thin wing formed by the testa are likewise most common in trees and shrubs, particularly in climbers—jacaranda, trumpet vine, catalpa, yams, butter-and-eggs. Most famous of these is the seed with a giant, membranaceous wing (15 centimetres, or six inches) of Macrozanonia macrocarpa, a tropical climber of the cucumber family.Many fruits form plumes, some derived from persisting and ultimately hairy styles, as in clematis, avens, and anemones; some from the perianth, as in the sedge family (Cyperaceae); and some from the pappus, a calyx structure, as in dandelion and Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon (Tragopogon). Plumed seeds usually have tufts of light, silky hairs at one end (rarely both ends) of the seeds—e.g., fireweed, milkweeds, dogbane. In woolly fruits and seeds, the pericarp or the seed coat is covered with cotton-like hairs—e.g., willow, poplar or cottonwood, kapok, cotton, balsa, silk-cotton tree, and some anemones. In some cases, the hairs may serve double duty, in that they function in water dispersal as well as wind dispersal. In tumbleweeds, the whole plant or its fruiting portion breaks off and is blown across open country, scattering seeds as it goes; examples include Russian thistle, pigweed, tumbling mustard, perhaps rose of Jericho, and “windballs” of the grass Spinifex of Indonesian shores and Australian steppes. Poppies have a mechanism in which the wind has to swing the slender fruitstalk back and forth before the seeds are thrown out through pores near the top of the capsule.Dispersal by waterMany beach, pond, and swamp plants have waterborne seeds, which are buoyant by being enclosed in corky fruits or air-containing fruits or both; examples of these plants include water plantain, yellow flag, sea kale, sea rocket, sea beet, and all species of Rhizophoraceae, a family of mangrove plants. Sea dispersal of the coconut palm has been well proved; the fibrous mesocarp of the fruit, a giant drupe, provides buoyancy. Once the nuts are ashore, the mesocarp also aids in the aboveground germination process by collecting rainwater; in addition, the endosperm has in its “milk” a provision for seedling establishment on beaches without much freshwater. A sea rocket species with seeds highly resistant to seawater is gaining a foothold on volcanic Surtsey Island south of Iceland. Purple loosestrife, monkey flower, Aster tripolium, and Juncus species (rushes) are often transported by water in the seedling stage. Rainwash down mountain slopes may be important in tropical forests. A “splashcup mechanism,” common in fungi for spore dispersal, is suggested by the open fruit capsule with exposed small seeds in the pearlwort (Sagina) and mitrewort (Mitella). Hygrochasy, the opening of fruits in moist weather, is displayed by species of Mesembryanthemum, Sedum, and other plants of dry environments.Self-dispersalBest known in this category are the active ballists, which forcibly eject their seeds by means of various mechanisms. In the fruit of the dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) of the western United States, a very high osmotic pressure (pressure accumulated by movement of water across cell membranes principally in only one direction) builds up that ultimately leads to a lateral blasting out of the seeds over distances of up to 15 metres (49 feet) with an initial velocity of about 95 kilometres (60 miles) per hour. squirting cucumber (Ecballium elaterium) also employs an osmotic mechanism. In Scotch broom and gorse, however, drying out of the already dead tissues in the two valves of the seed pod causes a tendency to warp, which, on hot summer days, culminates in an explosive and audible separation of these valves, with violent seed release. Such methods may be coupled with secondary dispersal mechanisms, effected by ants in the case of Scotch broom and gorse or by birds and mammals, to which sticky seeds may adhere, in the case of Arceuthobium and squirting cucumber. Other active ballists are species of geranium, violet, wood sorrel, witch-hazel, touch-me-not (Impatiens), and acanthus; probable champions are Bauhinia purpurea, with a distance of 15 metres and the sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) with 14 metres. Barochory, the dispersal of seeds and fruits by gravity alone, is demonstrated by the heavy fruits of horse chestnut.Creeping diaspores are found in grasses such as Avena sterilis and Aegilops ovata, the grains of which are provided with bristles capable of hygroscopic movements (coiling and flexing, in response to changes in moisture). The mericarps (a fruit fragment—see the Table: Schizocarp) or stork's bill (an Erodium species), when moistened, bury themselves with a corkscrew motion by unwinding a multiple-barbed, beak-shaped appendage, which, in the dry state, was coiled.Atelechory, the dispersal over a very limited distance only, represents a waste-avoiding, defensive “strategy” that functions in further exploitation of an already occupied, favourable site. This aim is often achieved by synaptospermy, the sticking together of several diaspores, which makes them less mobile, as in beet and spinach; also, by geocarpy, which is either the production of fruits underground, as in the arum lilies Stylochiton and Biarum, in which the flowers are already subterranean, or the active burying of fruits by the mother plant, as in the peanut, Arachis hypogaea. In the American hog peanut (Amphicarpa bracteata), pods of a special type are buried by the plant and are cached by squirrels later on. Kenilworth ivy (Cymbalaria), which normally grows on stone or brick walls, stashes its fruits away in crevices after strikingly extending the flower stalks. Not surprisingly, geocarpy, like synaptospermy, is most often encountered in desert plants; however, it also occurs in violet species, in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum)—even when it grows in France and England—and in Begonia hypogaea of the African rain forest.Diaspore dormancy has at least three functions: (1) immediate germination must be prevented even when circumstances are optimal so as to avoid exposure of the seedling to an unfavourable period (e.g., winter), which is sure to follow; (2) the unfavourable period has to be survived; and (3) the various dispersing agents must be given time to act. Accordingly, the wide variation in diaspore longevity can be appreciated only by linking it with the various dispersal mechanisms employed, as well as with the climate and its seasonal changes. Thus, the downy seeds of willows, blown up and down rivers in early summer with a chance of quick establishment on newly exposed sandbars, have a life-span of only one week. Tropical rain forest trees frequently have seeds of low life expectancy also. Intermediate are seeds of sugarcane, tea, and coco palm, among others, with life-spans of up to a year. Mimosa glomerata seeds in the herbarium of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris were found viable after 221 years. In general, viability is better retained in air of low moisture content. Some seeds, however, remain viable under water—those of certain rush (Juncus) species and Sium cicutaefolium for at least seven years. Salt water can be tolerated for years by the pebble-like but floating seeds of Caesalpinia (Guilandina) bonduc and C. bonducella, species that, in consequence, possess an almost pantropical distribution. Seeds of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) found in a peat deposit in Manchuria and estimated by radioactive-carbon dating to be 1,400 (±400) years old, rapidly germinated (and subsequently produced flowering plants) when the seeds were filed to permit water entry. In 1967 seeds of the arctic tundra lupine (Lupinus arcticus), found in a frozen lemming burrow with animal remains established to be at least 10,000 years old, germinated within 48 hours when returned to favourable conditions. The problem of differential seed viability has been approached experimentally by various workers, one of whom buried 20 species of common Michigan weed seeds, mixed with sand, in inverted open-mouthed bottles for periodic inspection. After 80 years, three species still had viable seeds.Lack of dormancyIn some plants, the seeds are able to germinate as soon as they have matured on the plant, as demonstrated by wheat, sweet corn, peas, and beans in a very rainy season. Certain mangrove species normally form foot-long embryos on the trees; these later drop down into the mud or seawater. Such cases, however, are exceptional. The lack of dormancy in cultivated species, contrasting with the situation in most wild plants, is undoubtedly the result of conscious selection by man.Immature embryosIn plants whose seeds ripen and are shed from the mother plant before the embryo has undergone much development beyond the fertilized egg stage (orchids, broomrapes, ginkgo, dogtooth violet, ash, winter aconite, and buttercups), there is an understandable delay of several weeks or months, even under optimal conditions, before the seedling emerges.Role of the seed coatThere are at least three ways in which a hard testa may be responsible for seed dormancy: it may (1) prevent expansion of the embryo mechanically (pigweed); or (2) block the entrance of water; or (3) impede gas exchange so that the embryos lack oxygen. Resistance of the testa to water uptake is most widespread in the bean family, the seed coats of which, usually hard, smooth, or even glassy, may, in addition, possess a waxy covering. In some cases water entry is controlled by a small opening, the strophiolar cleft, which is provided with a corklike plug; only removal or loosening of the plug will permit water entry. Similar seeds not possessing a strophiolar cleft must depend on abrasion, which in nature may be brought about by microbial attack, passage through an animal, freezing and thawing, or mechanical means. In horticulture and agriculture, the coats of such seeds are deliberately damaged or weakened by man (scarification). In chemical scarification, seeds are dipped into strong sulfuric acid, organic solvents such as acetone or alcohol, or even boiling water. In mechanical scarification, they may be shaken with some abrasive material such as sand or be scratched with a knife.Frequently seed coats are permeable to water yet block entrance of oxygen; this applies, for example, to the upper of the two seeds normally found in each burr of the cocklebur plant. The lower seeds germinate readily under a favourable moisture and temperature regime, but the upper ones fail to do so unless the seed coat is punctured or removed or the intact seed is placed under very high oxygen concentrations.Afterripening, stratification, and temperature effectsThe most difficult cases of dormancy to overcome are those in which the embryos, although not underdeveloped, remain dormant even when the seed coats are removed and conditions are favourable for growth. Germination in these takes place only after a series of little-understood changes, usually called afterripening, have taken place in the embryo. In this group are many forest trees and shrubs such as pines, hemlocks, and other conifers; some flowering woody plants such as dogwood, hawthorn, ash, linden, tulip poplar, holly, and viburnum; fruit trees such as apples, pears, peaches, plums, and cherries; and flowering herbaceous plants such as iris, Solomon's seal, and lily-of-the-valley. In some species, one winter suffices for afterripening. In others, the process is drawn out over several years, with some germination occurring each year. This can be viewed as an insurance of the species against flash catastrophes that might completely wipe out certain year classes.Many species require moisture and low temperatures; (temperature) for example, in apples, when the cold requirement is insufficiently met, abnormal seedlings result. Others (cereals, dogwood) afterripen during dry storage. The seeds of certain legumes—for example, the seeds of the tree lupin, the coats of which are extremely hard and impermeable—possess a hilum with an ingenious valve mechanism that allows water loss in dry air but prevents re-uptake of moisture in humid air. Of great practical importance is stratification, a procedure aimed at promoting a more uniform and faster germination of cold-requiring, afterripening seeds. In this procedure, seeds are placed for one to six months, depending on the species, between layers of sand, sawdust, sphagnum, or peat and kept moist as well as reasonably cold (usually 0° to 10° C [32° to 50° F]). A remarkable “double dormancy” has thus been uncovered in lily-of-the-valley and false Solomon's seal. Here, two successive cold treatments separated by a warm period are needed for complete seedling development. The first cold treatment eliminates the dormancy of the root; the warm period permits its outgrowth; and the second cold period eliminates epicotyl or leaf dormancy. Thus, almost two years may be required to obtain the complete plant. The optimal temperature for germination, ranging from 1° C (34° F) for bitterroot to 42° C (108° F) for pigweed, may also shift slightly as a result of stratification.Many dry seeds are remarkably resistant to extreme temperatures, some even to that of liquid air (−140° C or −220° F). Seeds of Scotch broom and some Medicago species can be boiled briefly without losing viability. Ecologically, such heat resistance is important in vegetation types periodically ravaged by fire, such as in the California chaparral, where the germination of Ceanothus seeds may even be stimulated. Also important ecologically is a germination requirement calling for a modest daily alternation between a higher and a lower temperature. Especially in the desert, extreme temperature fluctuations are an unavoidable feature of the surface, whereas with increasing depth these fluctuations are gradually damped out. A requirement for a modest fluctuation—e.g., from 20° C (68° F) at night to 30° C (86° F) in the daytime (as displayed by the grass Oryzopsis miliacea)—practically ensures germination at fair depths; and this is advantageous because a seed germinating in soil has to strike a balance between two conflicting demands, both depending on depth—on the one hand, germination in deeper layers is advantageous because a dependable moisture supply simply is not available near the surface; but, on the other hand, closeness to the surface is desirable because it allows the seedling to reach air and light rapidly and become self-supporting.Light and seed germinationMany seeds are insensitive to light, but in a number of species germination is stimulated or inhibited by exposure to continuous or short periods of illumination. So stimulated are many grasses, lettuce, fireweed, peppergrass (Lepidium), mullein, evening primrose, yellow dock, loosestrife, and Chinese lantern plant. Corn (maize), the smaller cereals, and many legumes, such as beans and clover, germinate as well in light as in darkness. Inhibition by light is found in chive, garlic, and several other species of the lily family, jimson weed, fennel flower (Nigella), Phacelia, Nemophila, and pigweed (Amaranthus). Sometimes, imbibed (wet) seeds that do not germinate at all in darkness may be fully promoted by only a few seconds or minutes of white light. The best studied case of this type, and one that is a milestone in plant physiology, concerns seeds of the Grand Rapids variety of lettuce, which is stimulated to germination by red light (wavelength about 660 nanometres) but inhibited by “far red” light (wavelength about 730 nanometres). Alternations of the two treatments to almost any extent indicate that the last treatment received is the decisive one in determining whether the seeds will germinate.Ecological role of lightLaboratory experiments and field observations indicate that light is a main controller of seed dormancy in a wide array of species. The absence of light, for example, was found in one study to be responsible for the nongermination of seeds of 20 out of 23 weed species commonly found in arable soil. In regions of shifting sands, seeds of Russian thistle germinate only when the fruits are uncovered, often after a burial period of several years. Conversely, the seeds of Calligonum comosum and the melon Citrullus colocynthis, inhabiting coarse sandy soils in the Negev Desert, are strongly inhibited by light. The survival value of this response, which restricts germination to buried seeds, lies in the fact that at the surface fluctuating environmental conditions may rapidly create a very hostile micro-environment. The seeds of Artemisia monosperma have an absolute light requirement but respond to extremely low intensities, such as is transmitted by a two-millimetre- (0.08-inch-) thick sand filter. In seeds buried too deeply, germination is prevented. The responsiveness to light, however, increases with the duration of water imbibition. Even when full responsiveness to light has been reached, maximal germination occurs only after several light-exposures are given at intervals. In the field, this combined response mechanism acts as an integrating (cumulative) rain gauge because the seeds (as indicated) become increasingly responsive to light, and thus increasingly germinable, the longer the sand remains moistened. Certain Juncus seeds have an absolute light requirement over a wide range of temperatures; consequently, they do not germinate under dense vegetation or in overly deep water. In combination with temperature, light (in the sense of day length) may also restrict germination to the most suitable time of year. In birch, for example, seeds that have not gone through a cold period after imbibing water remain dormant after release from the mother plant in the fall and will germinate only when the days begin to lengthen the next spring.Stimulators and inhibitors of germinationA number of chemicals (potassium nitrate, thiourea, and ethylene chlorhydrin) and plant hormones (gibberellins and kinetin) have been used experimentally to break seed dormancy. Their mode of action is obscure, but it is known that in some instances thiourea, gibberellin, and kinetin can substitute for light.Natural inhibitors, which completely suppress germination (coumarin, parasorbic acid, ferulic acid, phenols, protoanemonin, transcinnamic acid, alkaloids, essential oils, and the hormone dormin) may be present in the pulp or juice of fruits or in various parts of the seed. The effect of seed coat phenols, for example, may be indirect—being highly oxidizable, they may screen out much-needed oxygen. Ecologically, such inhibitors are important in at least three ways. Their slow disappearance with time may spread germination out over several years (a protection against catastrophes). Furthermore, when leached out by rainwater, they often serve as agents inhibiting the germination of other competitive plants nearby. Finally, the gradual leaching out of water-soluble inhibitors serves as an excellent integrating rain gauge. Indeed, it has been shown that the germination of certain desert plants is not related to moisture as such but to soil water movement—i.e., to the amount and duration of rain received.Bastiaan J.D. MeeuseAdditional ReadingWorks treating the nature and function of seed and fruit include T.T. Kozlowski (ed.), Seed Biology, 3 vol. (1972); P.F. Wareing and I.D.J. Phillips, The Control of Growth and Differentiation in Plants, 2nd ed. (1978), written with a physiologist's appreciation for the experimental approach, admirably covering various aspects of dormancy; L. van der Pijl, Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants, 3rd rev. and expanded ed. (1982), a highly original and most stimulating book displaying a thorough knowledge of both tropical and temperate-region biology; J. Derek Bewley and Michael Black, Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination (1985); and A.M. Mayer and A. Poljakoff-Mayber, The Germination of Seeds, 4th ed. (1989), a very readable, responsible account presented in a well-organized, fairly concise manner.Bastiaan J.D. Meeuse Ed.
* * *