Polk, Sarah

Polk, Sarah

▪ American first lady
née  Sarah Childress 
born September 4, 1803, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, U.S.
died August 14, 1891, Nashville, Tennessee

      American first lady (1845–49), the wife of James K. Polk (Polk, James K.), 11th president of the United States. Compared to most other first ladies of the 19th century, she was deeply involved in her husband's career and, through him, exerted considerable influence on public affairs and politics.

      Sarah Childress, daughter of Joel Childress, a prominent businessman and planter, and Elizabeth Whitsitt Childress, profited from an excellent education for a woman of her time. Tutored at home, she attended public schools in Nashville, Tennessee, and later enrolled at the outstanding (and expensive) Moravian Female Academy in Salem, North Carolina. After her father died in 1819, she and her two siblings were raised by their mother.

      When Sarah married James K. Polk on January 1, 1824, he had already embarked on a political career in the Tennessee state legislature. She quickly came to share her husband's political ambitions, becoming (in the judgment of one historian) his “most valuable political ally.” During James's tenure in the House of Representatives (1825–39), which included four years as speaker (1835–39), Sarah usually accompanied him to Washington, D.C., where she was a popular hostess and noted conversationalist. Although she could not travel with him on his campaigns, because it would have been considered inappropriate, she sent him documents and kept him apprised of the local political scene. The couple had no children.

 Upon becoming first lady, Sarah was widely rumoured to be a useful asset to her husband and a strong influence on his thinking. Her husband's biographer, Charles Sellers, called her “indispensable” as a “secretary, political counselor, nurse and emotional resource.” Dignified and gracious, even to political foes, she opened the White House for receptions twice a week, but, in keeping with her religious views, she adamantly forbade dancing and music on Sundays. She took little interest in redecorating the White House, though she did oversee the installation of gas lighting.

      The Polks planned for a long retirement in their newly built home, Polk Place, in Nashville, after James's term ended in March 1849. But James died on June 15, leaving Sarah widowed at 45. There were rumours of a romantic involvement with President James Buchanan (Buchanan, James), a bachelor, in the late 1850s, but she never remarried. She spent the rest of her life at Polk Place.

Betty Boyd Caroli

Additional Reading
Short biographies of Sarah Polk include Jayne Crumpler DeFiore, “Sarah (Childress) Polk,” in Lewis L. Gould (ed.), American First Ladies (1996), pp. 131–144; and Betty Boyd Caroli, First Ladies, expanded ed. (1995), pp. 58–67. Anson Nelson and Fanny Nelson, Memorials of Sarah Childress Polk (1892, reissued 1994), includes interviews with Sarah Polk and others, as well as some newspaper coverage. Charles Grier Sellers, James K. Polk, 2 vol., (1957–66, reprinted 1987), discusses her political interests.

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