- Paley, William
▪ British philosopher and priestborn July 1743, Peterborough, Northamptonshire [now in Cambridgeshire], Eng.died May 25, 1805, Lincoln, LincolnshireEnglish Anglican priest, Utilitarian philosopher, and author of influential works on Christianity, ethics, and science, among them the standard exposition in English theology of the teleological argument for the existence of God.Educated at Giggleswick School and Christ's College, Cambridge, Paley graduated in 1763 as senior wrangler and was appointed fellow and tutor of his college in 1766. After becoming rector of Musgrave (1775), Dalston (1776), and Appleby (1777), he was made archdeacon of Carlisle (1782) and later a canon of St. Paul's (1794), subdean of Lincoln (1795), and rector of Bishop-Wearmouth (1795).Paley's most important works were The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785), the subject of lectures at the University of Cambridge; A View of the Evidence of Christianity (1794), which was required reading for entrance to Cambridge until the 20th century; and Natural Theology (1802), based on John Ray's Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation (1691). In Natural Theology, Paley used the analogy of the watch: both the world and the watch presuppose a maker. The book strongly influenced Charles Darwin.
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