Oudenaarde, Battle of

Oudenaarde, Battle of

▪ European history [1708]
      (July 11, 1708), victory over the French won by the Duke of Marlborough (Marlborough, John Churchill, 1st Duke of, Marquess Of Blandford, Earl Of Marlborough, Baron Churchill Of Sandridge, Lord Churchill Of Eyemouth, Reichsfürst) and Prince Eugene Of Savoy during the War of the Spanish Succession; it eventually led to the Allied (Anglo-Dutch-Austrian) recapture of Ghent and Bruges, which had been captured by the French on July 4–5.

      The battle was fought north of the town of Oudenaarde between an Allied army of 80,000 men under Marlborough and Eugene and a French army of 85,000 men under the marshal Louis-Joseph, duke of Burgundy (Louis XIV's grandson). The French were preparing to besiege Oudenaarde and were caught off guard. The Allied army, which had marched 50 miles (80 km) in 65 hours, crossed the Schelde River on July 11 and immediately attacked before the French could deploy properly. The French command had been divided: Bourgogne had wanted to retreat and only at the last moment consented to Vendôme's plea to stand and fight. All afternoon a bitter and confused battle raged. Unnoticed by the French, Marlborough sent a Dutch force on a long detour to the west. It struck the French right flank while Eugene pressed against the French left. By the time darkness forced a halt, the French had lost approximately 6,000 killed or wounded and another 9,000 captured. The Allies suffered about 4,000 casualties. The next day Vendôme rallied the defeated army and repulsed the Allies at Ghent. Marlborough recaptured Ghent and Bruges in January 1709, and the French withdrew to their own border.

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