- Nixon, Richard M.
▪ president of United StatesIntroductionin full Richard Milhous Nixonborn January 9, 1913, Yorba Linda, California, U.S.died April 22, 1994, New York, New York37th president of the United States (1969–74), who, faced with almost certain impeachment for his role in the Watergate Scandal, became the first American president to resign from office. He was also vice president (1953–61) under President Dwight D. Eisenhower (Eisenhower, Dwight D.). (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)Early life and congressional careerNixon was the second of five children born to Frank Nixon, a service station owner and grocer, and Hannah Milhous Nixon, whose devout Quakerism would exert a strong influence on her son. Nixon graduated from Whittier College in Whittier, California, in 1934 and from Duke University Law School in Durham, North Carolina, in 1937. Returning to Whittier to practice law, he met Thelma Catherine (“Pat”) Ryan (Pat Nixon (Nixon, Pat)), a teacher and amateur actress, after the two were cast in the same play at a local community theatre. The couple married in 1940.In August 1942, after a brief stint in the Office of Price Administration in Washington, D.C., Nixon joined the navy, serving as an aviation ground officer in the Pacific and rising to the rank of lieutenant commander. Following his return to civilian life in 1946, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, defeating five-term liberal Democratic Congressman Jerry Voorhis in a campaign that relied heavily on innuendos about Voorhis's alleged communist sympathies. Running for reelection in 1948, Nixon entered and won both the Democratic and Republican primaries, which thus eliminated the need to participate in the general election. As a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAAC) in 1948–50, he took a leading role in the investigation of Alger Hiss (Hiss, Alger), a former State Department official accused of spying for the Soviet Union. In dramatic testimony before the committee, Whittaker Chambers (Chambers, Whittaker), a journalist and former spy, claimed that in 1937 Hiss had given him classified State Department papers for transmission to a Soviet agent. Hiss vehemently denied the charge but was later convicted of perjury. Nixon's hostile questioning of Hiss during the committee hearings did much to make his national reputation as a fervent anticommunist.In 1950 Nixon successfully ran for the United States Senate against Democratic Representative Helen Gahagan Douglas. After his campaign distributed “pink sheets” comparing Douglas's voting record to that of Vito Marcantonio, a left-wing representative from New York, the Independent Review, a small Southern California newspaper, nicknamed him “Tricky Dick.” The epithet later became a favourite among Nixon's opponents.Vice presidencyAt the Republican convention in 1952, Nixon won nomination as vice president on a ticket with Eisenhower (Eisenhower, Dwight D.), largely because of his anticommunist credentials but also because Republicans thought he could draw valuable support in the West. In the midst of the campaign, the New York Post reported that Nixon had been maintaining a secret “slush fund” provided by contributions from a group of Southern California businessmen. Eisenhower was willing to give Nixon a chance to clear himself but emphasized that Nixon needed to emerge from the crisis “as clean as a hound's tooth.” On September 23, 1952, Nixon delivered a nationally televised address, the so-called “Checkers” speech, in which he acknowledged the existence of the fund but denied that any of it had been used improperly. To demonstrate that he had not enriched himself in office, he listed his family's financial assets and liabilities in embarrassing detail, noting that his wife, Pat, unlike the wives of so many Democratic politicians, did not own a fur coat but only “a respectable Republican cloth coat.” The speech is perhaps best remembered for its maudlin conclusion, in which Nixon admitted accepting one political gift—a cocker spaniel that his six-year-old daughter, Tricia, had named Checkers. “Regardless of what they say about it,” he declared, “we are going to keep it.” Although Nixon initially thought that the speech had been a failure, the public responded favourably, and a reassured Eisenhower told him, “You're my boy.” The Eisenhower-Nixon ticket defeated the Democratic candidates, Adlai E. Stevenson (Stevenson, Adlai E) and John Sparkman, with just under 34 million popular votes to their 27.3 million; the vote in the electoral college was 442 to 89.During his two terms as vice president, Nixon campaigned actively for Republican candidates but otherwise did not assume significant responsibilities. (Asked at a press conference to describe Nixon's contributions to his administration's policies, Eisenhower replied: “If you give me a week, I might think of one.”) Nevertheless, his performance in office helped to make the role of vice president more prominent and to enhance its constitutional importance. In 1955–57 Eisenhower suffered a series of serious illnesses, including a heart attack, an attack of ileitis, and a stroke. While Eisenhower was incapacitated, Nixon was called on to chair several cabinet sessions and National Security Council meetings, though real power lay in a close circle of Eisenhower advisers, from which Nixon had always been excluded. After his stroke, Eisenhower formalized an agreement with Nixon on the powers and responsibilities of the vice president (vice president of the United States of America) in the event of presidential disability; the agreement was accepted by later administrations until the adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution in 1967. Nixon's vice presidency was also noteworthy for his many well-publicized trips abroad, including a 1958 tour of Latin America—a trip that journalist Walter Lippmann (Lippmann, Walter) termed a “diplomatic Pearl Harbor”—during which his car was stoned, slapped, and spat upon by anti-American protesters, and a 1959 visit to the Soviet Union, highlighted by an impromptu profanity-filled “kitchen debate” in Moscow with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev (Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich).Election of 1960Nixon received his party's presidential nomination in 1960 and was opposed in the general election by Democrat John F. Kennedy (Kennedy, John F.). The campaign was memorable for an unprecedented series of four televised debates between the two candidates. Although Nixon performed well rhetorically, Kennedy managed to convey an appealing image of youthfulness, energy, and physical poise, which convinced many that he had won the debates. In the closest presidential contest since Grover Cleveland (Cleveland, Grover) defeated James G. Blaine (Blaine, James G.) in 1884, Nixon lost to Kennedy by fewer than 120,000 popular votes. Citing irregularities in Illinois and Texas, many observers questioned whether Kennedy had legally won those states, and some prominent Republicans—including Eisenhower—even urged Nixon to contest the results. He chose not to, however, declaring thatI could think of no worse example for nations abroad, who for the first time were trying to put free electoral procedures into effect, than that of the United States wrangling over the results of our presidential election, and even suggesting that the presidency itself could be stolen by thievery at the ballot box.Nixon's supporter's and critics alike, both then and later, praised him for the dignity and unselfishness with which he handled defeat and the suspicion that vote fraud had cost him the presidency.Nixon then retired to private life in California, where he wrote a best-selling book, Six Crises (1961). In 1962 he reluctantly decided to run for governor of California but lost to incumbent Democrat Edmund G. (“Pat”) Brown. In a memorable postelection news conference, he announced his retirement from politics and attacked the press, declaring that it would not “have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore.” He moved to New York City to practice law and over the next few years built a reputation as an expert in foreign affairs and a leader who could appeal to both moderates and conservatives in his party.PresidencyNixon won the Republican nomination for president in 1968 by putting together a coalition that included Southern conservatives led by Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. In exchange for Southern support, Nixon promised to appoint “strict constructionists” to the federal judiciary, to name a Southerner to the Supreme Court, to oppose court-ordered busing, and to choose a vice presidential candidate acceptable to the South. With Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew (Agnew, Spiro T.) as his running mate, Nixon campaigned against Democrat Hubert H. Humphrey (Humphrey, Hubert H) and third-party candidate George Wallace (Wallace, George C.) on a vague platform promising an honourable peace in Vietnam—Nixon said that he had a “secret plan” to end the war—the restoration of law and order in the cities, a crackdown on illegal drugs, and an end to the draft. Humphrey, who as Lyndon B. Johnson's vice president was heavily burdened by the latter's unpopular Vietnam policies, called for an end to the bombing of North Vietnam as “an acceptable risk for peace.” Johnson himself halted the bombing on October 31, less than one week before the election, in preparation for direct negotiations with Hanoi. Had he taken this step earlier, Humphrey might have won the election, as polls showed him gaining rapidly on Nixon in the final days of the campaign. Nixon won the election by a narrow margin, 31.7 million popular votes to Humphrey's nearly 30.9 million; the electoral vote was 301 to 191. (See primary source document: First Inaugural Address (Richard Milhous Nixon: First Inaugural Address).)Domestic policiesDespite expectations from some observers that Nixon would be a “do-nothing” president, his administration undertook a number of important reforms in welfare policy, civil rights, law enforcement, the environment, and other areas. Nixon's proposed Family Assistance Program (FAP), intended to replace the service-oriented Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), would have provided working and nonworking poor families with a guaranteed annual income—though Nixon preferred to call it a “negative income tax.” Although the measure was defeated in the Senate, its failure helped to generate support for incremental legislation incorporating similar ideas—such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), which provided a guaranteed income to the elderly, the blind, and the disabled; and automatic cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for Social Security recipients—and it also prompted the expansion and improvement of existing programs, such as food stamps and health insurance for low-income families. In the area of civil rights, Nixon's administration instituted so-called “set aside” policies to reserve a certain percentage of jobs for minorities on federally funded construction projects—the first “ affirmative action” program. Although Nixon opposed school busing and delayed taking action on desegregation until federal court orders forced his hand, his administration drastically reduced the percentage of African American students attending all-black schools. In addition, funding for many federal civil rights agencies, in particular the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), was substantially increased while Nixon was in office. In response to pressure from consumer and environmental groups, Nixon proposed legislation that created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). His revenue-sharing program, called “New Federalism,” provided state and local governments with billions of federal tax dollars.Prior to 1973 the most important of Nixon's domestic problems was the economy. In order to reduce inflation he initially tried to restrict federal spending, but beginning in 1971 his budget proposals contained deficits of several billion dollars, the largest in American history up to that time. Nixon's New Economic Policy, announced in August 1971 in response to continuing inflation, increasing unemployment, and a deteriorating trade deficit, included an 8 percent devaluation of the dollar, new surcharges on imports, and unprecedented peacetime controls on wages and prices. These policies produced temporary improvements in the economy by the end of 1972, but, once price and wage controls were lifted, inflation returned with a vengeance, reaching 8.8 percent in 1973 and 12.2 percent in 1974.Foreign affairsAiming to achieve “peace with honor” in the Vietnam War, Nixon gradually reduced the number of U.S. military personnel in Vietnam. Under his policy of “Vietnamization,” combat roles were transferred to South Vietnamese troops, who nevertheless remained heavily dependent on American supplies and air support. At the same time, however, Nixon resumed the bombing of North Vietnam (suspended by President Johnson in October 1968) and expanded the air and ground war to neighbouring Cambodia and Laos. In the spring of 1970, U.S. and South Vietnamese forces attacked North Vietnamese sanctuaries in Cambodia, which prompted widespread protests in the United States; one of these demonstrations—at Kent State University on May 4, 1970—ended tragically when soldiers of the Ohio National Guard fired into a crowd of about 2,000 protesters, killing four and wounding nine.After intensive negotiations between National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger (Kissinger, Henry A.) and North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Le Duc Tho, the two sides reached an agreement in October 1972, and Kissinger announced, “Peace is at hand.” But the South Vietnamese raised objections, and the agreement quickly broke down. An intensive 11-day bombing campaign of Hanoi and other North Vietnamese cities in late December (the “Christmas bombings”) was followed by more negotiations, and a new agreement was finally reached in January 1973 and signed in Paris. It included an immediate cease-fire, the withdrawal of all American military personnel, the release of all prisoners of war, and an international force to keep the peace. For their work on the accord, Kissinger and Tho were awarded the 1973 Nobel Prize for Peace (though Tho declined the honour).China and the Soviet UnionNixon's most significant achievement in foreign affairs may have been the establishment of direct relations with the People's Republic of China (China) after a 21-year estrangement. Following a series of low-level diplomatic contacts in 1970 and the lifting of U.S. trade and travel restrictions the following year, the Chinese indicated that they would welcome high-level discussions, and Nixon sent his national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, to China for secret talks. The thaw in relations became apparent with the “ping-pong diplomacy” conducted by American and Chinese table-tennis teams in reciprocal visits in 1971–72. Nixon's visit to China in February–March 1972, the first by an American president while in office, concluded with the Shanghai Communiqué, in which the United States formally recognized the “one-China” principle—that there is only one China, and that Taiwan is a part of China.The rapprochement with China, undertaken in part to take advantage of the growing Sino-Soviet rift in the late 1960s, gave Nixon more leverage in his dealings with the Soviet Union. By 1971 the Soviets were more amenable to improved relations with the United States, and in May 1972 Nixon paid a state visit to Moscow to sign 10 formal agreements, the most important of which were the nuclear-arms limitation treaties known as SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) (based on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks conducted between the United States and the Soviet Union beginning in 1969) and a memorandum, the Basic Principles of U.S.-Soviet Relations, summarizing the new relationship between the two countries in the new era of détente.The Middle East and Latin AmericaNixon was less successful in the Middle East, where his administration's comprehensive plan for peace, the Rogers Plan (named for Nixon's first secretary of state, William Rogers), was rejected by both Israel and the Soviet Union. After the 1973 Arab-Israeli war (Arab-Israeli wars) (the “Yom Kippur War”), Kissinger's back-and-forth visits between the Arab states and Israel (dubbed “shuttle diplomacy”) helped to broker disengagement agreements but did little to improve U.S. relations with the Arabs.Fearing communist revolution in Latin America, the Nixon administration helped to undermine the coalition government of Chile's Marxist President Salvador Allende (Allende, Salvador), elected in 1970. After Allende nationalized American-owned mining companies, the administration restricted Chile's access to international economic assistance and discouraged private investment, increased aid to the Chilean military, cultivated secret contacts with anti-Allende police and military officials, and undertook various other destabilizing measures, including funneling millions of dollars in covert payments to Chilean opposition groups in 1970–73. In September 1973 Allende was overthrown in a military coup led by army commander in chief General Augusto Pinochet (Pinochet, Augusto).Watergate (Watergate Scandal) and other scandalsRenominated with Agnew in 1972, Nixon defeated his Democratic challenger, the liberal Senator George S. McGovern (McGovern, George S), in one of the largest landslide victories in the history of American presidential elections: 46.7 million to 28.9 million in the popular vote and 520 to 17 in the electoral vote. (See primary source document: Second Inaugural Address (Richard Milhous Nixon: Second Inaugural Address).) Despite his resounding victory, Nixon would soon be forced to resign in disgrace in the worst political scandal in United States history.The Watergate Scandal stemmed from illegal activities by Nixon and his aides related to the burglary and wiretapping of the national headquarters of the Democratic Party at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.; eventually it came to encompass allegations of other loosely related crimes committed both before and after the break-in. The five men involved in the burglary, who were hired by the Republican Party's Committee to Re-elect the President, were arrested and charged on June 17, 1972. In the days following the arrests, Nixon secretly directed the White House counsel, John Dean (Dean, John Wesley, III), to oversee a cover-up to conceal the administration's involvement. Nixon also obstructed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its inquiry and authorized secret cash payments to the Watergate burglars in an effort to prevent them from implicating the administration.Several major newspapers investigated the possible involvement of the White House in the burglary. Leading the pack was The Washington Post (Washington Post, The) and its two hungry newshounds, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward (Woodward, Bob), whose stories were based largely on information from an unnamed source called “Deep Throat.” The mysterious identity of Deep Throat became a news story in its own right and led to decades of speculation. (W. Mark Felt, a top-ranking FBI official at the time of the investigation, revealed himself as the informant in 2005.) In February 1973 a special Senate committee—the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, chaired by Senator Sam Ervin—was established to look into the Watergate affair. In televised committee hearings, Dean accused the president of involvement in the cover-up, and others testified to illegal activities by the administration and the campaign staff, including the use of federal agencies to harass Nixon's perceived enemies (many of whose names appeared on an “enemies list” of prominent politicians, journalists, entertainers, academics, and others) and acts of politically inspired espionage by a special White House investigative unit known as the “plumbers,” because they investigated news leaks.In July the committee learned that in 1969 Nixon had installed a recording system in the White House and that all the president's conversations in the Oval Office had been recorded. When the tapes were subpoenaed by Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor appointed to investigate the Watergate affair, Nixon refused to comply, offering to provide summary transcripts instead. Cox rejected the offer. Then, in a series of episodes that came to be known as the Saturday Night Massacre, Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Cox, and Richardson resigned rather than comply. Nixon then fired Richardson's assistant, William Ruckelshaus, when he too refused to fire Cox. Cox was finally removed by Solicitor General Robert Bork, though a federal district court subsequently ruled the action illegal.Amid calls for his impeachment, Nixon agreed to the appointment of another special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski (Jaworski, Leon), and promised that he would not fire him without congressional consent. After protesting in a news conference that “I am not a crook,” Nixon released seven of the nine tapes requested by Cox, one of which contained a suspicious gap of 18 and one-half minutes. Although damning, the tapes did not contain the “smoking gun” that would prove that the president himself ordered the break-in or attempted to obstruct justice. Jaworski later subpoenaed 64 tapes that Nixon continued to withhold on grounds of “executive privilege,” and in July 1974 the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Nixon's claims of executive privilege were invalid. By that time the House Judiciary Committee had already voted to recommend three articles of impeachment, relating to obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and failure to comply with congressional subpoenas. On August 5, in compliance with the Supreme Court's ruling, Nixon submitted transcripts of a conversation taped on June 23, 1972, in which he discussed a plan to use the Central Intelligence Agency to block the FBI's investigation of the Watergate break-in. The smoking gun had finally been found.Faced with the near-certain prospect of impeachment by the House and conviction in the Senate, Nixon announced his resignation (see original text (Richard M. Nixon: Resignation from the Presidency)) on the evening of August 8, 1974, effective at noon the next day. He was succeeded by Gerald Ford (Ford, Gerald R.), whom he had appointed vice president in 1973 after Agnew (Agnew, Spiro T.) resigned his office amid charges of having committed bribery, extortion, and tax evasion during his tenure as governor of Maryland. Nixon was pardoned by President Ford on September 8, 1974.Retirement and deathNixon retired with his wife to the seclusion of his estate in San Clemente, California. He wrote RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (1978) and several books on international affairs and American foreign policy, modestly rehabilitating his public reputation and earning a role as an elder statesman and foreign-policy expert. Nixon spent his last years campaigning for American political support and financial aid for Russia and the other former Soviet republics. Nixon died of a massive stroke in New York City in April 1994, 10 months after his wife's death from lung cancer. In ceremonies after his death, President Bill Clinton (Clinton, Bill) and other dignitaries praised him for his diplomatic achievements. He was buried beside his wife at his birthplace.Cabinet of President Richard M. NixonCabinet of President Richard M. Nixon Cabinet of President Richard M. NixonThe table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of President Richard M. Nixon.Additional ReadingDocuments of the 37th president are found in Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon, 6 vol. (1971–75). Among Nixon's published works are RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (1978, reprinted 1990), The Real War (1980, reprinted 1990), Leaders (1982, reprinted 1990), No More Vietnams (1985), and Seize the Moment: America's Challenge in a One-Superpower World (1992).Biographies include David Abrahamsen, Nixon vs. Nixon (1977); Stephen E. Ambrose, Nixon, 3 vol. (1987–91); Roger Morris, Richard Milhous Nixon: The Rise of an American Politician (1990), which focuses on his early life and career; Herbert S. Parmet, Richard Nixon and His America (1990), based in part on interviews with Nixon; Tom Wicker, One of Us: Richard Nixon and the American Dream (1991), a sympathetic portrait; and Jonathan Aitken, Nixon (1993). The relationship between Nixon and John F. Kennedy, beginning with their early days in Congress, is the subject of Christopher Matthews, Kennedy & Nixon: The Rivalry that Shaped Postwar America (1996). Robert Sam Anson, Exile: The Unquiet Oblivion of Richard M. Nixon (1984), covers Nixon's life during the decade following his resignation.Treatments of Nixon's presidential campaigns are provided in Theodore H. White, The Making of the President, 1968 (1969), and The Making of the President, 1972 (1973). Nixon's presidency is examined in A. James Reichley (James Reichley), Conservatives in an Age of Change: The Nixon and Ford Administrations (1981), a study of the effects of conservative ideology on policy making; Richard C. Thornton, The Nixon-Kissinger Years: Reshaping America's Foreign Policy (1989), exploring the differing views on foreign relations held by Nixon and Henry Kissinger; Hal W. Bochin, Richard Nixon: Rhetorical Strategist (1990), on Nixon's speeches; Michael A. Genovese, The Nixon Presidency: Power and Politics in Turbulent Times (1990); Leon Friedman and William F. Levantrosser (eds.), Richard M. Nixon: Politician, President, Administrator (1991), conference papers dealing mainly with domestic policy; John Robert Greene, The Limits of Power: The Nixon and Ford Administrations (1992), dealing with domestic and foreign policies; Joan Hoff, Nixon Reconsidered (1994), which presents a positive evaluation of Nixon's presidency based on his domestic policy; and Gerald S. Strober and Deborah H. Strober, Nixon: An Oral History of His Presidency (1994), comprising nearly 100 interviews. H.R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (1994), by Nixon's chief of staff, covers the first four years of Nixon's presidency.Among the many books concerned with the Watergate Scandal are Theodore H. White, Breach of Faith (1975, reissued 1986); William Safire, Before the Fall (1975, reprinted 1988); Frank Mankiewicz, U.S. v. Richard M. Nixon: The Final Crisis (1975); Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, All The President's Men (1974, reissued 1987), dealing with Watergate, and The Final Days (1976, reissued 1987), covering Nixon's last days in office; Stanley I. Kutler, The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of Richard Nixon (1990); Howard Ball, “We Have a Duty”: The Supreme Court and the Watergate Tapes Litigation (1990); Leon Friedman and William F. Levantrosser (eds.), Watergate and Afterward: The Legacy of Richard M. Nixon (1992), a collection of conference papers; and Fred Emery, Watergate: The Corruption of American Politics and the Fall of Richard Nixon (1994), an extensively researched treatment.Dale E. Casper, Richard M. Nixon: A Bibliographic Exploration (1988), consists of over 1,700 entries, most of which are nongovernmental resources.A biography of Pat Nixon is provided in Lester David, The Lonely Lady of San Clemente: The Story of Pat Nixon (1978).
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