▪ Italian mercenariesEnglish Mamertinesband of mercenaries from Campania, in Italy, who, by a shift in alliances, touched off the First Punic War (Punic War, First) between Rome and Carthage (264–241 BC). Their name was derived from Mamers, Oscan for Mars, the war god. Originally hired by Syracuse, in Sicily, they deserted, seized the Greek colony of Messana (modern Messina) about 288, and plundered the surrounding territory. When Hieron II of Syracuse defeated them near the Longanus River and blockaded Messana about 265, the band appealed for and received troop support from the Carthaginians. In a sudden reversal the Mamertini spurned Carthage, expelled the Carthaginian garrison, and accepted forces from Rome under the consul Appius Claudius Caudex. The gathering of the two rival intervening armies precipitated the general war. The inhabitants of Messana were still called Mamertines at least as late as the 1st century BC.
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