- Hieron II
▪ tyrant and king of Syracusedied 216/215 BCtyrant and then king of Syracuse, Sicily, from about 270 to 216/215 BC, who struggled against the Mamertini and eventually allied his city with Rome (ancient Rome).On the departure of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, from Sicily in 276, the Syracusans appointed Hieron commander of the troops, and he strengthened his position by marrying the daughter of Leptines, the city's leading citizen. Meanwhile, the Mamertini, a body of Campanian mercenaries who had been employed by Agathocles, the former tyrant of Syracuse, had captured the stronghold of Messana (Messina, in northeastern Sicily), from which they harassed the Syracusans. Hieron defeated them in a pitched battle near Mylae, but Carthaginian (Carthage) forces intervened to prevent him from capturing Messana. His grateful countrymen then chose Hieron as king. When in 264 he again attacked Messana, the Mamertini called on Rome for aid. Hieron at once joined the Carthaginian leader Hanno, who had recently landed in Sicily, but they were defeated by the Roman consul Appius Claudius, and Hieron withdrew to Syracuse. Pressed by the Roman forces, in 263 he was compelled to conclude a treaty with Rome that restricted his kingdom to southeast Sicily and the eastern coast as far as Tauromenium (modern Taormina). From this date until his death he remained loyal to the Romans, frequently supplying them with soldiers and provisions during the Punic Wars (Punic War, First). Hieron maintained a powerful defensive fleet and employed his famous kinsman, the Greek Archimedes, in the construction of ingenious mechanical devices for defense of the city. Hieron's system of taxation was held up as a model of its kind and was used by the Romans in 241, when they annexed Sicily as the first province.
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