Latin American dance

Latin American dance

 dance traditions of Mexico, Central America, and the portions of South America and the Caribbean colonized by the Spanish and the Portuguese. These traditions reflect the distinctive mixtures of indigenous (Amerindian), African, and European influences that have shifted throughout the region over time.

      This article surveys selected genres of dance across the vast and diverse region of Latin America. After a brief consideration of dance in preconquest cultures (for further treatment, see Native American dance), the narrative turns to the profound influence on dance practice of the European-imposed Roman Catholic Church and its calendar of festivals and commemorations. At the same time, imported elite dance practices became part of the colonial cultures and were in turn infused with local and regional flavours. From the 19th century on, national variations have asserted themselves throughout dance practice in Latin America and in the Latino cultures of North America. ( Latin American music shows a similar path of development; a great deal of the region's nonclassical music, both vocal and instrumental, accompanies or shares a history with dance.)

      Although the article discusses theatrical derivatives of traditional dance (which are often grouped under the name folklórico) because of their visibility and importance in the region, not included are international forms of concert dance, such as ballet and modern dance. After a chronological survey of broad trends, with examples, the article focuses on individual countries. Haiti, which was colonized by the French, is included in this article because it shares important African-derived ritual practices with Brazil and Cuba and because its history is entwined with that of the Dominican Republic. Perhaps needless to say, this article can only skim the surface of such a vast topic.

From encounter to independence

The indigenous heritage
      On their arrival in the Western Hemisphere in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers from the Iberian kingdoms of Portugal and Castile (Spain) encountered peoples—even entire empires—previously unknown to Europeans. A few of the Europeans wrote about the music and dance practices they observed during ritual festivals among the local populations. The indigenous populations were decimated by disease, forced labour, and warfare, and their history was disrupted. In the Caribbean (Caribbean Sea) very few indigenous people survived, but on the mainland significant populations managed to preserve their communities.

 Some early dance history can be inferred from the archives and from what seem to be continuous practices. For example, creation stories (creation myth) were a common aspect of indigenous spiritual practice, and their telling often incorporated dance as a vital element. Natural forces (i.e., gods and goddesses) and animal spirits were honoured or represented as dramatic actors; dance rituals were often meant to forestall or explain cataclysmic events. The great civilizations of the Aztec and Inca (like the Roman Catholic Church of their conquerors) organized time according to complex ritual calendars, and dance was essential in their communal ritual life.

      The dances of the Aztec were precisely structured and executed. Priests trained young people in the movements of the ritual dances and organized the ceremonies into massive arrangements of dancers who moved in symbolic geometric patterns. Combat was a major theme that featured male dancers: weapons in hand, individuals or groups of dancers enacted struggles between gods or between military units such as eagle warriors and jaguar warriors. Dances could last more than a day to test the warrior-dancers' endurance and commitment. In some ceremonies dancers moved in columns to represent revolving astral bodies in their annual and millennial circuits; in others they represented planters working in looping zurcos (furrows). In the danza de los voladores (“dance of the fliers”), one of the few surviving preconquest dances of Mesoamerica, traditionally four fliers (dancers) who are suspended upside down from the top of a tall pole make 13 revolutions for a combined total of 52; in the Nahuatl (Nahuatl language) belief system of the Aztec and Toltec peoples, 52 years make a “year-binding,” or xiuhmolpilli.

Ritual contexts
      The institution of the Roman Catholic Church—with its rituals, doctrines, and ways of looking at the world—accompanied the Iberians to the New World and was integral to the functioning of the viceroyalties in New Spain (New Spain, Viceroyalty of) (based in Mexico; 1535–1821) and Peru (Peru, Viceroyalty of) (1542–1824), which between them administered the colonial territories of the Spanish. After the military conquest, religious music, dance, processions, and festivals became tools of cultural transformation and social control. Catholic priests and monks—Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans, Carmelites, Augustinians—allowed, even encouraged, indigenous dancers to continue their rituals, modified to incorporate Catholic saints and ideas in place of their own. The indigenous peoples adapted their own rich calendar of public festivals to new uses and new places. Into the present day, ancient ritual dances echo in the yearly observances that take place in front of churches and at other sacred sites, especially as part of the patronal fiestas, the festivals in honour of a town's (or country's) patron saint.

      In Roman Catholic countries around the world, nonliturgical carnival celebrations mark the last-chance merrymaking that occurs during the weeks before Ash Wednesday, the day that begins the austere 40-day period of Lent; in many parts of Latin America, Carnival parades feature exuberant group dances. As in the religious pageants, fantasy and elaborate costuming allow the Carnival dancers to become the “other” and to use dance as a means of escaping the anxieties of everyday life.

 Perhaps the most widespread dance ritual of Latin America derives from the dance of Moors and Christians (la danza de Moros y Cristianos), which was performed at major religious festivals in medieval Spain. The dance was based on an older form of religious street theatre, autos sacramentales (auto sacramental) (“mystery plays”), portrayals of the competition of forces of good and evil. In the 8th century Moors had brought Islam to Spain from North Africa, and Christians in Spain fought to regain ground until 1492, when the houses of Aragon and Castile expelled the remaining Muslims. (For more on that period, see Spain: Christian Spain from the Muslim invasion to about 1260 (Spain).) After the dance-drama was imported to Mesoamerica and Peru in the 16th century, the oppositional forces in it were refashioned to cast the Spanish (good) against the Indians (bad). Although the danza de los Moros y Cristianos exists throughout Latin America, it is known by a variety of names, including danza de la conquista, danza de los Moros, marujada (in Brazil), and danza de Santiago.

      Blended rituals such as la danza de la conquista became part of colonial religious festivals. Theatrical enactments of the conquest, or farsas de guerra (“war farces”), played a prominent role in entertaining and enculturating colonial populations. In Mexico the entertainments became known as mitotes (from the Nahuatl mitotia, “to make dances”). Mitotes drew upon both Spanish dramatic action, which featured lengthy sections of dialogue, and the Aztec and Chichimec Indian tradition of using divided bands of enemies to represent the central theme of battle.

      The conquest dances were taken to Spain and performed for elite audiences. Although their popularity faded in Spain during the 17th century, these spectacles became models for further ritual dances in the New World. July 25 marks the feast day of St. James (James, Saint) (Santiago, Spain's patron saint) throughout Spanish-speaking Latin America. For this major festival, many local traditions included dances to commemorate ancient battles between opposing forces. Dances of los vejigantes in Puerto Rico and los tastoanes in Mexico are prominent examples. In both festivals there are representations of Spanish horsemen and masked figures representing African slaves or members of the indigenous resistance.

Social dances
      Upper-class immigrants from Europe brought with them their fashionable social dances (los bailes de salón). The aristocracy of the viceroyalties kept up with a succession of popular European dances. These included open-couple dances, in which couples generally did not touch—such as minuet, allemande, sarabande (zarabande in Spanish), chaconne, galliard, pavane, and volta. The interdependent-couple contredanse (contradanza in Spanish) and its variations ( quadrille, lancer, and cotillion) were developing during the 17th century. Such choreographed dances of intricate geometries originated in Europe before sweeping quickly through Latin American ballrooms and dance salons during the 18th century. The fashion caught on across the social spectrum; for example, indigenous dancers in northeast Mexico adopted the contradanza into their ritual expression of the matlachines dance.

      Contradanzas and quadrilles remained common throughout Latin America and the Caribbean in the early 21st century. Their characteristic interlacing lines, bridges, circles, and grand right-and-left patterns are easily recognized in hundreds of dances. In the Caribbean, contradanzas and quadrilles included the bélè, belair, and belén, as well as kadril and numerous other variants of quadrille. In northeastern Brazil they became quadrilhas, the traditional dances for the festival of St. John the Baptist (John the Baptist, Saint) (São João) on June 24. The dances remained popular in the Northeast, and into the 21st century quadrilha competitions occurred on the state and national level.

      As struggles for independence roiled Latin America during the 19th century, closed-couple dances, specifically the waltz, schottische, and polka, became fashionable in elite society. In closed-couple dances the partners touch most of the time; as a result, these dances were considered rebellious acts of sexual immorality. In addition the new couple dances were distinctive because each couple could choose steps from a range of possibilities. With the passage of time, these social dances became commonplace and their intimacy more accepted. The dances migrated to the countryside, where most of the people of African heritage lived. African-influenced hip movements—which could be seen as sexually suggestive—were incorporated into the dances, and they again transgressed the Roman Catholic Church's standards of morality.

Folk and popular dances
      Latin America developed rich and varied local and national repertoires of secular dances. Many of the region's traditional dances were derived from two Spanish folk dances, the fandango and the seguidilla, which reached their peak of popularity in the 18th century. Both were couple dances in which partners were arranged in scattered formation on the dance floor, often an outdoor patio. Strict social codes prevented the dance partners from touching; they remained at a distance of about 2 feet (0.6 metres) apart and maintained their connection by moving together and apart, changing places, and keeping eye contact. The opening, or introduction, often included a paseo de salida (a side-by-side promenade of the space) with a vuelta y colocación (a turn and getting into position). The next section consisted of an adorno (an improvisation of the dancers' favourite steps). The final phase of the dances was the exaltación, which included spins and turns by the dancers, who remained separate. The Spanish seguidilla ended with a turn and a bien parado (final pose) with the couple side-by-side or facing each other.

      Soldiers, merchants, and performers attached to traveling musical theatre companies introduced these dances of the middle and lower classes to Latin America. Narrative themes in the dances included entertaining tales and vignettes of courtship. Because couples were not allowed to touch while dancing, they communicated through facial expressions and eye contact. Handkerchiefs, fans, and long, full skirts were used to embellish courtship rituals and add expressive gestures.

      The body posture for fandango and seguidilla was described as asentado, or seated: dancers maintained a bit of flexion in the legs while keeping the torso upright. In the Americas the quality of weight, or grounding, that this position gave the man's body as he danced was amplified as he mimed motifs from daily work in agriculture and ranching. The word fandango was retained in the Americas, but it changed meaning over time and was eventually used to refer to a dance party or social gathering. Seguidilla was changed in Latin America to bailes de tierra (“dances of the land”) or sonecitos del país (“little country dances”).

      The rhythms of the fandangos and sonecitos del país were based on either a step in 3/4 time (i.e., a triple metre, having three beats to the musical measure), called the paseo, or a quick 6/8 cadence (i.e., a compound metre having two three-part beats to the measure), called the zapateado (rhythmic stamping). The flexed hips and knees of the asentado body position made zapateado easier to do. The dance opened with a brief promenade around the dance floor. Then couples faced, with partners acknowledging each other as they waited for the music to signal the first figure. Throughout the dance, couples alternated between paseo and zapateado, embellishing the movements with occasional turns. The couples danced in one spot until the music signaled an exchange of places, a crossing during which couples could pass face-to-face so closely that it appeared they could exchange a kiss. At the close of the dance, couples would spin, turn, and end in a pose, with partners side by side or facing each other. The dance form was highly structured, but there was room for improvisation—which might have included rhythmic embellishments of the zapateados, twists and angles of the body, and communication through expression in the eyes, a tilt of the head, a swish of the skirt, or gestures with a handkerchief.

      The Spanish jota is the last form to be identified as a major contributor to the folk dances of the viceroyalties of the New World. This dance was performed in a triple metre, with arms held high. Dancers would snap their fingers or play castanets, and the steps included lively hops interspersed with vivacious turns. Although the castanets were not used in the Americas, the jota is clearly the foundation of many couple dances in the Americas, such as the jaranas of Yucatán (Mexico), the tiranas of Argentina, and the jota Tapatío of Jalisco (Mexico).

Regional developments

Importation of African cultures
      Millions of sub-Saharan Africans—chiefly from western and central regions—were captured and shipped as slaves to Latin America between the 16th and 19th centuries. Over time, elements of their dance infused the fledgling bailes de salón and bailes de tierra, both nontouching fandango-based popular social dances. Enslaved Africans made up a significant proportion of the population throughout the Caribbean and in other regions with plantation-based economies (especially sugarcane and coffee); their impact was smaller in Mexico and the Andes. The African-derived cultures in such cosmopolitan ports as Havana and Rio de Janeiro spread to influence the national identities of Cuba, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, and other countries. African dance had easily recognizable traits: flexion of the hips and knees; movement that originated in the central core of the body and undulated out to the arms and legs; isolated movements of shoulders, rib cage, or hips; a forward tilt of the upper torso; use of the flat foot rather than the heel or toe; polyrhythmic movement of different body parts (polyrhythm) (i.e., simultaneous contrasting patterns); and inventive spontaneity. West African dancing focused on a “downward” and relaxed body (i.e., having the appearance of giving in to gravity, having flexed knees, a forward-tilted upper torso, and so on) in contrast to the upright and more rigid style of dance forms from the Iberian Peninsula.

      The African influence extended to the burgeoning couple dances of Latin America, especially in the addition of hip movements and more sexual suggestion. Percussion instruments (percussion instrument) were added to the harp, violin, and guitar ensembles that accompanied bailes de tierra. African polyrhythms and syncopation pushed the dances' rhythmic complexity, and more of the body was engaged as dancers incorporated hip rolls, shoulder shimmies, leg lifts, and squats. The social dances gained humour and more-explicit flirtation.

      Within the African-derived communities, ritual dances were mechanisms for survival in the face of oppression, brutality, and racism. The dances invoked spiritual guides to provide strength for people's enduring struggles. In certain Afro-Latino practices—especially with Santería in Cuba, Candomblé in Brazil, and Vodou in Haiti—dance developed special meaning. Dance was a mechanism for escape from emotional stress and one way to restore the emotional and physical well-being of the individual and community.

Dances of national identity (1800–1940)
      The richness of the Iberian heritage, mixed with African movement styles and the indigenous festival tradition, offered an open arena for the development of Latin American dances. As they sought and gained independence, the new republics used music and dance as symbols of defiance and solidarity. Dancing encouraged unity and helped create a new collective identity. Although the dances were varied, most were couple dances that did or did not allow touching—what the American historian John Charles Chasteen has labeled as the “dance-of-two.”

      In Peru and Mexico, sonecitos del país became the signature expressions of the burgeoning mestizo (the varying blend of indigenous, European-derived, and African-derived) fiesta dances. In Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru, the zamacueca (cueca) became the reigning mestizo dance of the 19th century. Its Spanish influences included an upright body posture, the expressive use of a handkerchief, accompaniment by instruments of the guitar or harp families (or both), and the use of Spanish in the song texts. In the music accompanying the zamacuecas, indigenous influence was seen in the use of the minor mode, which was reminiscent of indigenous scales. Afro-Peruvian influences included swinging and circling hips, rib cage contractions, and the use of a cajón (a sizable wooden box struck with the hands) as an accompanying percussion instrument.

      As Andean republics broke from Spanish rule and formed their own identities, the zamacueca dance assumed new names. In Chile and Bolivia it was called la cueca, and in Argentina it was known as la zamba. In Peru the name was changed to la marinera, in honour of the Peruvian navy (marina) and the heroes who died in the horrendous battles along the border between Peru and Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–83). In most variations of the zamacueca, both male and female dancers used a handkerchief to embellish the rhythmic arm gestures and to send messages to their partner. If the woman wanted to cool the passionate advances of her partner, she held the handkerchief in front of her face. If the man wanted to entice his partner, he draped the handkerchief over her shoulder and slowly slid it off.

      The zamacueca developed further during the time of the extensive travels associated with the California gold rush (1849 and a few years after that). The Mexican Pacific ports were stops for Chilean ships as they traveled north. Chilean sailors introduced the cueca chilena, which in Mexico was simply called la chilena, to the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mexican version, among others, suggested an amorous conquest of the rooster over the hen; the man's red handkerchief symbolized the cock's comb. As the dance progressed, the man indicated changes of direction to his partner by flipping his handkerchief with one hand. His other arm was held low to represent the wing of the rooster as he circled around the hen to take her under his wing (embrace her). The dance ended with a zapateado step that imitated the rooster scratching the ground for bugs. This motion was intended to persuade his partner to move closer to him so that he could conclude the conquest. The violin, guitar, cajón, and harp accompanied the Mexican chilenas.

 In other areas of Mexico during the middle of the 18th century, the sonecitos del país developed into sones and jarabes (jarabe), the most famous of which was the jarabe nacional (which became Mexico's official national dance in 1921). This is the dance known to many North Americans as the “Mexican hat dance,” but its name is properly translated as the “national dance of Mexico.”After Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1810, its regions independently developed son dance styles that were categorized as bailes regionales (regional dances). During fiestas on haciendas and ranches, a tarima (wooden platform) was constructed for son dancers. In Mexico City and Puebla, taverns became another context for playing and dancing sones; however, the Roman Catholic Church quickly condemned many of the early sones and jarabes for their sensuality.

 The Latin American dances-of-two that permitted couples to touch were patterned after the European waltz and polka, transformed by the imprint of the Afro-Latino population. Eventually this broad category included the habanera, milonga, maxixe, and danzón. Because pelvic movement was included, whether soft sways as in the Cuban danzón or body-to-body hip grinds and the enlacing of the legs as in the Brazilian maxixe, the early 20th-century couple dances were seen as both titillating and wicked.

The Caribbean

      During the colonial period, Spanish ships stopped in Havana to have their cargoes inventoried and taxed. The ships then sailed to their final destinations of Buenos Aires, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and other ports. When they returned to Spain, they would stop again in Cuba for inspections and taxation. Consequently, Cuba's developing dances, such as the closed-position habanera (with its steps on counts “1, 2, and,” to a 2/4rhythm), were as well known in Montevideo, Uruguay, as they were in Havana. In the 19th and 20th centuries Cuba's habanera, danzón, son (not to be confused with the Mexican son), cha-cha-chá, and mambo would continue the island's influence on dance throughout Latin America.

      The first Cuban danzón is credited to Cuban cornet player Miguel Faílde, who composed "Las Alturas de Simpson" (1879; “Simpson Heights”). Faílde, born of a Spanish father and a mother of mixed African-European descent, began his musical career playing for bailes de color (dances for people of colour). His music quickly gained popularity with middle-class Criollos (Creoles), the Cubans of European descent who had fought alongside black Cubans during the war of independence against Spain (1868–78). The Creoles hungered for subtle statements of rebellion against the Spanish, some of which they made by adopting black-infused Cuban music and dance forms. Artistically, danzón marked a separation from colonial domination and the emergence of an independent Cuba.

      At the turn of the 20th century, the danzón was a model for organizing and patterning social behaviour on the dance floor. Although social dancers of the Americas were familiar with the closed-partner position of the waltz, polka, and schottische, the danzón allowed couples to dance even more closely together, thereby directing the movement toward fluid and soft sways. The closeness of partners in the ballroom position, the swaying hips, and the minimal use of floor space created the danzón's characteristic look: a couple would be no more than 4 inches (about 10 cm) apart, dance on a single floor tile (ladrillo), and slide the entire foot on the floor for a small step (about 2 inches [5 cm]). The dance structure alternated between the basic step and paseos or descansos (rests), which allowed the dancers a moment to stop, listen to the orchestra, converse, and watch others at the gathering.

      The Cuban danzón of the 1890s was refashioned into the Cuban son of the 1920s by the incorporation of more Afro-Cuban dance elements—such as hip isolation, the tornillo (a man's pivot on a single foot as he fully flexes the support leg)—and the discarding the descanso. The mambo was made popular by the Cuban musician Pérez Prado and developed in the 1940s as a marriage between son and swing. The cha-cha-chá replaced the mambo in the 1950s as a spin-off from the son characterized by the rhythmic pattern marked by the feet and counted “1, 2, 3, 4-and-1.” In the 1980s the son casino burst onto Havana dance floors and took over beach parking lots. Casino was faster in pace and was characterized by multiple turning figures. It is clearly related to New York salsa, though sources vary on which dance was a response to the other. Casino rueda developed from casino and placed couples in a circle; typically, the dance's choreographies moved the women counterclockwise and the men clockwise as they switched partners.

       salsa—characterized by vibrant, energetic hip swinging inflamed by an intense beat—coalesced in the 1960s as a blending of Cuban mambo and Latin jazz infused with choreographic and stylistic imprints from Puerto Ricans living in New York City. In Colombia and Venezuela salsa gave expression and identity to the marginalized barrios of urban centres. Salsa dancers constantly manipulate and vary steps to create new ones, and competition becomes part of the fun. Salsa has broken the barriers of ethnicity and class to become the epitome of Latino pride and sentiment. By the 21st century, salsa was considered a world beat, a variety of music and dance performed throughout the world.

      The son had been the national dance of Cuba before the Cuban Revolution (1959), but the Fidel Castro (Castro, Fidel) administration designated the rumba as the country's official dance because it emphasizes Cuba's African heritage. Rumba has three distinct forms: yambú, guaguancó, and columbia. Before the dance section of each form, a diana, or sung prelude, establishes the mood: romantic, erotic, or competitive. Yambú is a dance in which a single couple slowly and respectfully dances within a circle created by the conga drummers, singers, waiting dancers, and spectators. The partners seldom touch, except when the man moves to the side of the woman and places his hand on her shoulder; they gracefully lower themselves almost to the floor and then come back up. Guaguancó places the man and woman in opposition, as they circle each other in symbolic sexual play. The dance is characterized by the vacunao, a hip-thrusting gesture by the man toward his partner; to avoid his advances, the woman must immediately turn away from him or use her skirts to cover her pelvic area. The columbia is a dance for men who individually enter the circle and compete against each other. They may use candles balanced on their heads, carry knives that they move around their bodies, or place on the floor items such as bottles or hats, around which they perform acrobatic movements. Both the columbia and the yambú allow for the possibility of mimetic movements, such as flying a kite, playing baseball, or scrubbing the floor. As a popular dance, the rumba establishes an ambience of play, competition, and kinetic beauty.

      Afro-Cuban ritual dances form a huge group of Cuban dances and reflect the four main groups of Africans that were transported to Cuba: the Kongo-Angola of west-central Africa, Arará (as they are known in Cuba, descendants of Fon and other ethnic groups from what are now Benin and Togo), Yoruba (largely from Nigeria), and Carabalí (as they are known in Cuba, from the Calabar River regions of Cameroon and Nigeria). The best-known dances are attached to the Yoruba-based Afro-Cuban religion of Santería, or La Religión Lucumí. Santería is a syncretic interlacing of intra-African and Roman Catholic–African belief systems and religious practices. Both men and women sing and dance, but only men traditionally play the sacred batá drums that accompany the rituals. The percussive rhythms, songs, and dances of Santería are meant to please the orishas (deities) and to persuade them to join the celebration; their acceptance is signaled by their manifestation within the dancers' bodies, what participants often describe as possession. Possession is signaled when a dancer abruptly breaks from the basic repetitious dance step, pitches forward or shakes, and then begins the distinct movements that characterize the orisha. For instance, Yemanya (whose name has several variant spellings) is the orisha of the ocean; when a female dancer experiences possession, she may lift her skirts and move them in a way that suggests the swells of an ocean wave. Transformation through dancing in pursuit of spiritual communication is also found in Haitian Vodou and Brazilian candomblé (discussed further in the Haiti (Latin American dance) and Brazil (Latin American dance) sections below).

      Cuba's many Carnival and festival dance celebrations include a summer festival in the city of Santiago de Cuba at the end of each July. The event began as the feast of the city's patron saint (Santiago, or St. James (James, Saint)) on July 25. (In 1953 Fidel Castro chose the celebration of the extended festival to camouflage his assault on a military garrison in Santiago, an event commemorated in the name of the 26th of July Movement.) The festival also coincided with the traditional end of the sugarcane harvest. At this event it is possible to view traditional Carnival dances, such as conga and chancletas (“sandals”), which originated in the colonial period. Conga is an upbeat walking dance that accents the fourth beat of the measure as the dancers (solo or in groups) wind through the streets during Carnival. In formal parade units, simple conga choreographies give form and shape to the dance, but the essence of the dance is most evident in the spontaneous crowd dancing along with the musicians through the streets. Chancletas uses a specific form of wooden shoe that accentuates or embellishes the music with rhythmic footwork under loose and swiveling hips. As with conga, it is the relaxed and spontaneous meandering that defines this dance.

      Also, the African religious cofradías (confraternities), known as cabildos in Cuba, were allowed to parade on January 6, Día de los Tres Reyes (Three Kings' Day), and during carnival. In socialist Cuba many of the rituals of the Roman Catholic Church were eliminated or secularized; Carnival was separated from Lent and moved to July in Havana, for example. Yet the explosive joy that results from taking a break from work and dancing in the streets at night has remained central to the celebrations.

Puerto Rico
      Spain's seguidilla, fandango, and contradanza all helped to shape the early folk forms of Puerto Rican rural, or jíbaro, culture, which developed in the central mountainous areas of the island. In the south the elegant danza was born in Ponce during the second half of the 19th century. Danza was the first national music and dance genre of Puerto Rico, and, like the Cuban danzón, it was a subtle expression of opposition to Spanish rule. As mentioned above, the closed position of couples in the ballroom dance flouted the Spanish traditions of female chastity and proper decorum. Lyrics to the danzas were often used to awake nationalist feelings in the populace.

      Danza begins with a paseo, or slow promenade of the dance space, with the couples holding hands or linking arms. In the danza of colonial times, women carried fans, which they might gracefully flutter during a promenade. There was also a series of messages they could convey to their partner or to a suitor watching from the sidelines: a closed fan dangling over the left arm meant “Someone is watching”; a fan held near the heart meant “You have my heart.” The opening musical theme for the paseo was repeated until the dancers had completed one circuit of the ballroom. The musicians then shifted to the section known as “merengue” (not to be confused with the merengue of the Dominican Republic (Latin American dance), discussed below), for which couples assumed closed ballroom position and danced a stately four-beat, slow-quick-quick pattern until the end of the music. The steps were small, and the dancers' feet slid along the floor as the couple gradually pivoted.

      Puerto Rico's cultural distinctiveness developed in part from its agricultural economy based on sugarcane, coffee, and tobacco. The black labourers, slave and free, who worked on these plantations created the bomba in the 18th century as their primary social dance; it spread throughout the island to diverse groups. The bomba resembles the Cuban rumba in its spatial pattern. The dancers create a circle that includes at least two drummers, a palitos (small sticks) player, maraca players, and singers. Bomba begins with a solo voice singing a phrase to which the chorus, supported by the musicians, responds (in a pattern known as call and response). A single dancer (or a couple) enters the circle and begins the dance with a paseo of the inside circumference. Next the dancer approaches the drummers and salutes to express respect. From this point, the dancer improvises piquetes (accents) to challenge or converse with the subidor (high-pitched drum). The more equally matched in skill that the drummer and dancer are, the more intricate and satisfying the bomba will be. The spectators add their voices to the chorus and wait their turn to enter as dancers. In many respects the bomba is similar to the Cuban columbia, except that the bomba is danced by both men and women, and dancers face the subidor with which they are conversing.

      Various bomba rhythms, verse structures, and intensities guide the dancers in movements and attitudes, such as yubá, sicá, and holandés. Each rhythm calls for a different attitude: regal, playful, aggressive, respectful, and so on. Broadly speaking, distinctive bomba styles have developed in various parts of the island: Ponce in the south, Mayagüez in the west, Loíza in the north, and Santurce between Loíza and San Juan. The Ponce style blends Spanish and African elements. The female dancer wears a long, ruffled skirt and heeled shoes reminiscent of European dress, but her head is wrapped in a scarf, an African adornment. The male dancer is dressed in slacks and a long-sleeved shirt. In posture both dancers use a lifted torso, and the man dances stiffly, as if imitating a Spanish military officer or someone from upper-class Spanish or Creole society. The Santurce style is similar to Ponce's. The man lifts his torso and keeps his arms rather stiff. He dances with sharp shifts of weight and produces accents with his legs. The woman wears a head scarf and a wide ruffled skirt over a starched white petticoat. She holds the ends of her skirts to signal the drummer and embellishes her dance with quick flicks, snaps, and repeated arcs of the material.

      The Loíza style of bomba has more African-based movements; the dancers employ isolations of the hip and shoulders (i.e., movement of those parts alone), flexible torsos, and greater use of improvised steps and body shifts. Bomba dancing is the main attraction during Loíza's festival of Santiago in mid-July. Accompanying the street processions centred on three images of the saint are open trucks with orchestras playing waltzes and danzas; some people ride horses along the route. The bomba musicians set up in vacant lots or in townspeople's front yards. As the community procession moves through the streets, anyone can stop and dance with the drummers. Included in the crowd and dance circle are the four traditional festival figures: the vejigante (masked trickster, a symbol of Africa), the caballero (horseman, a symbol of Spain), the viejo (one who wears rags, symbol of the common man), and the loca (men dressed as women who traditionally swept filth from the streets).

      The Puerto Rican musical genre of the plena may be danced, but it is more important for its lyrics, which have dealt with contemporary events since the end of the 19th century. The basic step is a side-to-side, step-touch movement with subtle motion through the rib cage and shoulders. Panderos (tambourines (tambourine)), drums, güiros (scrapers (scraper)), guitars (guitar) (especially the type of guitar known as the cuatro), and accordions (accordion) give the music its characteristic sound and buoyancy. In the early 21st century it was done as a couple dance, but older practitioners often dance apart.

Dominican Republic and Haiti
      The island of Hispaniola, of which the Dominican Republic now forms the eastern two-thirds and the Republic of Haiti (Haiti) occupies the rest, has a turbulent history that is reflected in 21st-century cultures. Christopher Columbus (Columbus, Christopher) landed on Hispaniola in 1492. The Taino who were established on the island resisted Spanish incursions, but it did not take long for their numbers to be decimated through disease and the effects of forced labour. The first permanent European settlement in the New World was Spain's Santo Domingo (1496), which became the capital of the Dominican Republic. Mines and plantations were established, and slaves were imported. In 1697 the French obtained the western third of the island, which they at first called Saint-Domingue; that colony, based on sugar plantations worked by slaves, prospered through the 18th century, while its Spanish neighbour suffered from an early loss of European attention. From 1795, when Spain ceded that part of the island (named Haiti, which became independent in 1804) to France, until 1844, when the Dominican Republic gained its independence, turmoil was constant. Upon independence the Spanish-speaking Dominicans worked immediately to attempt to eliminate Haitian (and by extension African) cultural influences. Although the elite may have been able to cling to their Spanishness, in fact much of the population was of African or mixed descent. An early Dominican dance, the baile de palo (“long-drum dance”) is an African-derived couple dance that is based on death rituals in which the spirit of the deceased entered an heir and danced.

 In contrast, Haiti retained an abundance of African-based religions, which after the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804) coalesced under the collective term of Vodou. Transcendence through the dance, including trance states, was a way to release anxiety and tension from a life of near destitution. Devotees were organized into “nations,” which were based loosely on African ethnic groups. From the time of slavery through the present day, through crises of poverty and political turmoil, Haitians have found healing, release, and diversion in the Vodou nation dances of Rada, Congo, Petwo, and others; the folk dances of affranchi (“freed slaves”); and the ceremonial parading dances of rara. The heritage of European dance is retained in dances such as the Congo minuet and contredanse. Many such dances were exported to other parts of the Caribbean by Haitian exiles, both black and white, during the Haitian Revolution.

      For all their differences and conflicted past, both countries claimed the same national dance: mereng in Haiti and merengue in the Dominican Republic. The dance arose during the Haitian occupation of the Dominican Republic (1822–44). After their country broke away, Dominican musicians distanced themselves from Haitian roots by increasing merengue's tempo and using the major mode rather than minor in their music. Like other closed-couple dances, the merengue was branded as obscene, and dancers were punished if they were caught. By the early 20th century the dance had been structured into three distinct sections: an opening paseo of 8 measures, the merengue proper of 16 measures, and a final section of jaleo that allowed improvisation and stronger rhythms. The merengue experienced a surge in popularity from 1916 to 1924—during the U.S. occupation—when Dominicans adopted it as a symbol of pride and resistance to outsiders. In the 1930s the dance structure was simplified to a one-step, also called a walking step, which allowed everyone to dance regardless of skill.

      Mexico's indigenous cultures have contributed to the distinctive regional and mestizo traditions found throughout the country. African slavery played a much smaller role there than in the Caribbean. One of Mexico's most elaborate dance events honours the country's patron saint, Our Lady of Guadalupe (Guadalupe, Our Lady of) (La Virgen de Guadalupe), whose feast day is December 12. Every year thousands of indigenous danzantes perform in her honour in front of the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. One distinctive and influential group is the Chichimec dancers, who are called concheros because some of them, while they are dancing, also play a guitarlike instrument made from the shell (concha) of an armadillo. Thousands of religious dance groups throughout Mexico regularly perform for Roman Catholic festivals and holidays. Their elaborate costumes, which take a great deal of time to construct, are adorned with sequins, feathers, shells, ribbons, metallic cutouts, and embroidery work.

      The music of the jarabe Tapatío, the national dance of Mexico (also called the jarabe nacional), originated in a collection of regional sonecitos del país that coalesced into a musical composition in the early part of the 20th century. The jarabe Tapatío represents the cultural identity of Mexico's mestizo population. The musical ensemble that accompanies the dance is the mariachi, another of Mexico's well-known symbols. (Since about 1930 the typical mariachi band has consisted of two trumpets, three or more violins, several instruments from the guitar family, and sometimes a harp.) This Mexican popular entertainment reflects a romanticized past and rural lifestyle. Both the jarabe Tapatío and mariachi trace their roots to the state of Jalisco; people who live near Guadalajara, the state's capital, are known as Tapatíos. The image of the Jaliscan woman making elaborate designs with the movement of her skirt has become a trademark of Mexican dance.

 In 1952 a young Mexico City dancer and choreographer named Amalia Hernández founded the Ballet Folklórico de México, a dance spectacle in the grand style of the Ballets Russes (which was established in 1909), with elaborate costumes, scenery, and lighting. As the American dancer Katherine Dunham (Dunham, Katherine) had done in the 1930s using Caribbean dance, Hernández created a hybrid form of concert dance that took Mexican mestizo and indigenous dance and modified them with dance techniques from modern dance. Precedent for this style of dance had been established by other national dance ensembles, such as Russia's Moiseyev company (established 1937; see also Moiseyev, Igor Aleksandrovich (Moiseyev, Igor)); a similar process was under way with the Philippine Bayanihan company (established 1957). The transformation of traditional dance into a performance genre fostered Mexican nationalism. The related goal of showcasing national accomplishment was bolstered when in 1962 the Ballet Folklórico won an international contest of national folk dance companies. Amalia Hernández's artistic principles have been copied by hundreds of folklórico troupes in Mexico, other parts of Latin America, and the United States.

      Mexicans have long embraced social dances of diverse origins, styling them to exhibit a distinct Mexican flavour. Historically, skilled Mexican musicians have regularly incorporated new musical trends into their repertories, whether Cuban Pérez Prado's mambo or Chicano Carlos Santana's rock. However, they have also been innovators. Banda (literally, “band”), for example, is considered a strictly Mexican genre. The music makes reference to a synthesis of traditional dance rhythms (e.g., polka, cumbia, son, and waltz) that have been imaginatively transformed by the use of electronic recording technology and a hyperactive performance style. The majority of banda music is upbeat, pushing the male dancers to jump, spin, gallop, and swing their partners upward or dip them to the floor. Banda also has slow tempos, which allow dancers the opportunity to rock back and forth in a soothing embrace. Beginning in the late 20th century, small towns in western Mexico underwent a forced lifestyle transition from rural to urban as factories and housing developments replaced farmland. Many farmworkers left Mexico altogether to seek a better life in the United States. For many, banda symbolizes pride in Mexican identity and expresses defiance against what is lost in the modernization process.

Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela
      Culturally and historically, Central America shares much with the surrounding regions, including the remnants of Mayan (Maya) dance, the religious dramas of Moors and Christians, marimba-accompanied folk dances, and cumbia. Uniquely Central American, however, is the punta of the Garifuna—a cultural group of mixed Amerindian and African origin—found on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Punta is a social dance of joy and festivity, as well as an emblem of cultural survival. In its festive aspect, punta allows dancers to interact with the drums as couples or individuals who try to outdo each other with shaking hips and buttocks. In its ritual aspect, punta is a ceremony for the dead, a celebratory send-off to a better life in the next world. A poignant moment in the dance occurs when a dancer shuffles through the sand in the direction of the Atlantic Ocean and Africa and leaves two markers for the path the spirit must follow to return home to its ancestors.

      The port of Cartagena, on the Caribbean coast of Colombia, was a major point of connection between Spain and the region that comprises Colombia and Venezuela. The bailecitos de tierra (fandangos) of this area—which are similar to the Mexican jarabe and Peruvian zamacueca (cueca)—are called the bambuco and joropo. The bambuco combines features of the fandango, Andean, and Afro-Latin dances as partners use a handkerchief to flirt and to embellish the courtship theme of the dance. The joropo is distinctive beyond the separation of the couple, with the man dancing the zapateado, for a segment in which the dancers hold each other lightly and dance small waltz steps in place. This coastal area gave birth to the cumbia, a hybridization of the Spanish fandango and African cumbé. The first written account of cumbia (1840) described it as a dance performed by slaves for the feast of Our Lady of Candlemas (la Virgen de la Candelaria). The women carried candles to light the space and to keep the men at a respectable distance. It was a gentle dance of short, sliding steps that moved slowly counterclockwise in a circle, the man pursuing and entreating the woman. As she traveled, the woman slowly swayed her body and moved her skirt; the man acknowledged his partner with arm gestures and used his hat to fan or to “crown” her. At unpredictable moments the woman would spin and pass the candle in front of the man's face, causing him to duck or to lean back to avoid being burned.

      In the 1940s cumbia's musical ensemble of tambores (drums), maracas, and flutes expanded under the influence of the big band sound of North America and Cuba. Cumbia was a dance-for-two, similar to the Cuban son and mambo. The new cumbia quickly conquered the Latino dance scene from California to Argentina. One of its most popular features was its versatility; it could be adapted as an open- or closed-couple dance or as a group dance in which individuals formed a circle on the dance floor and improvised to the music or took turns soloing in the centre of the circle. Cumbia reigned as the most popular Latino dance until the rise of salsa in the l960s.

 Brazilian dance is dominated by components of Brazil's African and Portuguese heritage. As in the other Latin American countries where slave-worked plantations became the basis of the colonial economy, African influence on music and dance was strong. In Brazil the elite culture remained Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism was the official religion. Brazil's national dance, the samba, originated in the state of Bahia among slaves and freed Africans. Samba da roda (“ring samba”) is similar to Puerto Rican bomba and Cuban rumba; it is a circular arrangement of waiting dancers, musicians, and spectators; dancers enter usually one at a time. The basic step is a quick, sliding exchange of weight from one leg to the other, responding to a steady 2/4 pulse played by percussion instruments. Most of the dancer's movement is below the waist, while the upper body remains relatively still and relaxed.

      After slavery ended in 1888, sugarcane workers migrated to the cities; many of them settled on the hills surrounding Rio de Janeiro. These favelas (shantytowns) became the incubators for Rio Carnival samba, as its inhabitants organized themselves into escolas de samba (“samba schools,” which functioned as community-based clubs). Carnival in Brazil is an explosive release of energy, as music and dance feed exuberant street parties and parades. Samba crossed the colour line and rose to national popularity through the radio and recording industries in the 1940s. Among the many samba variations that emerged in the 20th century are chorinho, bossa nova, gafieira, samba de salón, samba-enredo, samba de mulattas, samba reggae, and pegode.

      Other parts of Brazil have their own style of Carnival music and dance, such as frevo (a very fast, athletic dance with some moves similar to those in the Russian folk dance) and maracatus from Pernambuco and afoxé and bloco afro from Salvador. The oldest of the Afro-Brazilian afoxé groups, Filhos de Gandhy, was founded in the 1940s as a way to exhibit themes of brotherhood, peace, and tolerance within an environment that was rife with discrimination. This group organized an all-male afoxé unit dressed as the followers of the Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi (Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand). Drumming patterns and dance movements were inspired by candomblé dance and emphasized healing. Beginning in the 1970s, this message of black pride was echoed by many parading groups called blocos afros. Their themes, costumes, and choreography were African-inspired, and they displayed the fluid motion of their torsos and sweeping arm gestures.

      The Brazilian African-based religious practice of Candomblé and related practices throughout the country use dance as a central feature of worship. Candomblé is an adaptation of the Yoruba spiritual system from West Africa, similar to the Santería practice of Cuba; the orixás (orishas, or deities) are believed to control the forces of nature. Candomblé dancers, mainly women, move counterclockwise, singing the praises of the orixás, while three male drummers summon the deities to the festival. Lurching and subsequent spinning, vibrating, and pitching movements signal a dancer's possession by an orixá. At a given point, a break in the ritual allows those who have been possessed to enter a special room or house and change into the ceremonial clothes representing their orixá; for example, a dancer dons a blue gown and silver crown to signal the presence of the sea goddess Iemanjá. The dancers return to the ritual, still in a state of possession, to dance the characteristic movements of their orixá. Salvador's dance schools and performance ensembles have extracted the costumes, drumming, singing, and dancing from the ritual setting. The dança dos orixás has become part of local balé folclórico (folkloric ballet) performances; however, rituals of possession by the orixás are not permitted outside the religious setting.

      In addition to samba and Candomblé, capoeira—a blend of martial art and dance—is thought to be of African origins. Once a form of self-defense masquerading as entertainment, capoeira has become a feature of Brazilian folkloric dance groups. Its characteristic acrobatic moves and whipping leg gestures create a spectacle of excitement and danger.

The Southern Cone
      The Southern Cone includes all of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay and parts of Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil (also discussed above). Two characteristic dances of the region, the cueca chilena and the Argentine zamba, have already been discussed as variants of the zamacueca (cueca). Settlements along the Andes cordillera perform numerous dance rituals connected to Roman Catholic festival days and Carnival celebrations. One of the largest celebrations occurs in the northern highland desert of Chile. On July 16, the festival day of the Virgen del Carmen (the patron saint of Chile), more than 100,000 spectators, dancers, and musicians journey to La Tirana, a town with a population of about 600. More than 180 cofradías gather there, divided into dance units called cuyacas, pieles rojas, chunchos, osos, negros, morenos, chinos, gitanos, collaguayos, and diablos. Each has distinct steps, costumes, and music. The gitanos, for instance, dress as Gypsies (Roma) and dance in two lines facing each other, with choreographed crossovers, jumps, and gestures with scarves. The atmosphere is a mixture of rich spectacle and emotional reverence as the nonstop playing and dancing make the drummers' hands bleed and the dancers' feet blister. On the final night, the cofradías bid farewell to the Virgin with weeping and songs of farewell. They enter the church, where these sounds echo at the climax of exhaustion and fervent devotion.

       gaucho culture is shared by Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Gaucho dance heritage mixes Portuguese and Spanish fandango, chula, and tirana with the European-based waltz, polka, and schottische. Many of the dances reflect themes of courtship, while others emphasize humour or function as party games. Their charm lies in the formal politeness that partners display toward each other through bows and curtsies, modestly holding hands or using handkerchiefs to maintain connection. The men perform zapateado steps during sections of the dances, while the women perform a swaying soft step called a zarandeo (sarandeio in Portuguese), which is considered a flirting gesture. In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, 22 documented gaucho dances are re-created by more than 1,000 performance groups within gaucho community centres (centros de tradicoes gaúchas). In Argentina the gaucho dances include the chacarrera and gato (couple dances based on the fandango) and malambo (a man's solo dance with improvised footwork).

      The Río de la Plata separates the cities of Montevideo and Buenos Aires, the birthplaces of the milonga and the tango, respectively. These port cities were entryways to the cattle ranches of the Pampas (Pampas, the) and the mining industries of the Bolivian Andes. In the 1880s the riverfront area of Buenos Aires included bars, boardinghouses, and brothels that were patronized by sailors, gauchos, stevedores, soldiers, cart drivers, porters, and stablemen. The upbeat milonga and the gliding tango began as walking dances that could be performed in the confines of brothel and boardinghouse parlours. Like the Cuban danzón and Brazilian maxixe, the dances incorporated close embraces that symbolized and sometimes preceded sexual engagement and thus were inappropriate for middle- and upper-class society.

 Tango became acceptable and entered mainstream society after 1907, when it was exported to Paris. There it became one of the dance rages of the ragtime era, and in Europe it acquired certain features—the dance posture (a lifted body carriage) and many of the movements (such as dips, mechanical stops, and quick shifts of weight)—that are so closely associated with contemporary tango. Simultaneously, in Argentina the black population lost its identity as a separate group with the end of the official and clandestine slave trade, and its visibility was further diluted by a wave of European immigrants, most of whom arrived from Italy. Earlier African-influenced movements of the hip, torso, and shoulders disappeared from the tango, and its mood became more serious.

      Tango's popularity reached its apex in the late 1930s and the 1940s. After its success on dance floors overseas, the tango was brought to downtown Buenos Aires cafés and dance halls. On the larger dance floors, the number of tango steps increased, and variations were added, including leg hooks, jumps, and flicks, respectively called ganchos, saltos, and boleos. The previous close embrace of the dance relaxed so that couples could accommodate the new steps and leg gestures. Musical accompaniment included the guitar, piano, violin, bandoneón (a square-built button accordion), and voice. The tango singer and film star Carlos Gardel (Gardel, Carlos) became the heartthrob of Latin America in the 1920s and '30s. With the decline in Argentina's fortunes, tango's tempo slowed and its lyrics became poems of bitterness, melancholy, and nostalgia.

      Dances driven by rock and roll music from the United States displaced the tango as Argentina's favourite social dance in the 1950s, and salsa took the popular lead in the early 21st century. Meanwhile, tango made a transition into cabarets and onto the concert stage, where the dance became an international entertainment spectacle in the 1980s. Brilliant dance artists such as Juan Carlos Copes, Maria Nieves, and the Denzels toured the world, giving exhibitions and teaching classes. The tango revival reinvigorated Buenos Aires tango clubs, and the new tango (tango nuevo) became a draw for young people who wanted to experiment with cross-gender leading or new combinations of steps.

Additional considerations
      In a brief introduction to Latin American dance, it is not possible to describe more than a few of the dances that helped shape and express the identities of countries and cultural groups throughout the region. Dance can be found almost everywhere, and almost anyone can participate in Latino dance in its many informal settings.

Susan V. Cashion

Additional Reading

General reference works that incorporate extensive coverage of the dance and music of Latin America include Selma Jeanne Cohen (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Dance, 6 vol. (1998); Bruno Nettl et al. (eds.), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, vol. 2, South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean (1998); and Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (eds.), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., 29 vol. (2001), all of which are also available in online editions for a fee. Scholarship on Latin American dance topics appears in such publications as the Dance Research Journal (semiannual); Ethno-musicology (3/yr.); Black Music Research Journal (semiannual); and Revista/Review interamericana (quarterly).The Spanish heritage relevant to the study of Latin American dance is treated in Lucile Armstrong, Dances of Spain, 2 vol. (1951); and Matteo (Matteo Marcellus Vittucci) and Carola Goya, The Language of Spanish Dance, 2nd ed. (2003).The Afro-Latino influences in both social and religious dances are substantiated in Robert Farris Thompson, Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy (1983); Joseph M. Murphy, Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora (1994); John Charles Chasteen, National Rhythms, African Roots: The Deep History of Latin American Popular Dance (2004); and Yvonne Daniel, Dancing Wisdom: Embodied Knowledge in Haitian Vodou, Cuban Yoruba, and Bahian Candomblé (2005).Other useful general treatments include Celeste Fraser Delgado and José Esteban Muñoz (eds.), Everynight Life: Culture and Dance in Latin/o America (1997); and Anthony Shay, Choreographic Politics: State Folk Dance Companies, Representation, and Power (2002).

Mexico and Central America
Mexico and Central America are discussed in the general works cited above, and they are the particular focus of Anita González, Jarocho's Soul: Cultural Identity and Afro-Mexican Dance (2004); Daniel Sheehy, Mariachi Music in America: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (2006); and Helena Simonett, Banda: Mexican Musical Life Across Borders (2001). More-specialized works include Max Harris, Aztecs, Moors, and Christians: Festivals of Reconquest in Mexico and Spain (2000); Samuel Martí and Gertrude Prokosch Kurath, Dances of Anáhuac (1964); Martha Stone, At the Sign of Midnight: The Concheros Dance Cult of Mexico (1975); Olga Nájera-Ramírez, La fiesta de los tastoanes: Critical Encounters in Mexican Festival Performance (1997); and Mark Pedelty, Musical Ritual in Mexico City: From the Aztec to NAFTA (2004).

Useful for a general introduction to the region are two collections of essays: Patrick Taylor (ed.), Nation Dance: Religion, Identity, and Cultural Differences in the Caribbean (2001); and Susanna Sloat (ed.), Caribbean Dance from Abakuá to Zouk: How Movement Shapes Identity (2002).Cuba has a rich tradition of its own. The perspective of the dancer is represented by Susan Cashion, “Educating the Dancer in Cuba,” in Lynette Y. Overby and James H. Humphrey (eds.), Dance: Current Selected Research, vol. 1 (1989), pp. 165–185; and Alma Guillermoprieto, Dancing with Cuba: A Memoir of the Revolution, trans. by Esther Allen (2004). Historical context is provided by Yvonne Daniel, Rumba: Dance and Social Change in Contemporary Cuba (1995); Robin Moore, Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubanismo and Artistic Revolution in Havana, 1920–1940 (1997); Louis A. Pérez, Jr., On Becoming Cuban: Identity, Nationality, and Culture (1999, reissued 2008); and Ned Sublette, Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo (2004).The dance traditions of the Dominican Republic and Haiti have often been studied. Representative works about the Dominican Republic include Deborah Pacini Hernandez, Bachata: A Social History of a Dominican Popular Music (1995); Paul Austerlitz, Merengue: Dominican Music and Dominican Identity (1997); and Julia A. Sellers, Merengue and Dominican Identity: Music as National Unifier (2004). Haiti's dances are discussed in Maya Deren, Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti (1953, reprinted 1983; also published as Divine Horsemen: The Voodoo Gods of Haiti, 1970); Katherine Dunham, Dances of Haiti (1983); and Gerdès Fleurant, Dancing Spirits: Rhythms and Rituals of Haitian Vodun, the Rada Rite (1996).

South America
The tango, which is associated with Argentina and Uruguay, is considered in Donna J. Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires (1991); Simon Collier et al., Tango!: The Dance, the Song, the Story (1995); Marta E. Savigliano, Tango and the Political Economy of Passion (1995); Julie Taylor, Paper Tangos (1998); and Robert Farris Thompson, Tango: The Art History of Love (2005).Brazil's national dance, the samba, has been frequently studied. The literature includes Alma Guillermoprieto, Samba (1990); Barbara Browning, Samba: Resistance in Motion (1995); and Hermano Vianna, The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music & National Identity in Brazil, trans. by John Charles Chasteen (1999). The African influences on Brazilian dance are examined in Daniel J. Crowley, African Myth and Black Reality in Bahian Carnaval (1984); and Peter Fryer, Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil (2000).Peru's varied dance traditions are analyzed in Elisabeth den Otter, Music and Dance of Indians and Mestizos in an Andean Valley of Peru (1985); Zoila S. Mendoza, Shaping Society Through Dance: Mestizo Ritual Performance in the Peruvian Andes (2000); and Heidi Carolyn Feldman, Black Rhythms of Peru: Reviving African Musical Heritage in the Black Pacific (2006).

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