Landau, Ezekiel

Landau, Ezekiel

▪ Polish rabbi
born Oct. 8, 1713, Opatów, Pol.
died April 29, 1793, Prague

      Polish rabbi, the learned author of a much-reprinted book on Jewish law (Halakha (Halakhah)).

      In 1734 Landau's reputation for learning led to his appointment as head of the rabbinical court at Brody, and in 1745 he became rabbi of Jampol, Podolia (then part of Poland). There he gained fame by his diplomacy in arbitrating the Emden–Eybeschütz (Emden, Jacob Israel) controversy (Rabbi Jacob Emden, a fiery opponent of religious unorthodoxy, had accused Rabbi Jonathan Eybeschütz (Eybeschütz, Jonathan) of dispensing heretical amulets). In 1755 he went to Prague as rabbi and remained there until his death. His Halakhic decisions (responsa), collected under the title Nodaʿ be-Yehuda (“Known in Judah”), reveal Landau's fine analytical mind and careful scrutiny of sources.

      He was an implacable opponent of the two major currents of Judaism that arose in his generation: Ḥasidism (“Pious Ones”) and Haskala (“Enlightenment”). Ḥasidism, a mystical movement that valued joy and devotion in the service of God over learning, he opposed as sinfully ignorant; Haskala, a movement that encouraged assimilation as a means of ending prejudice and gaining civil rights for the Jews, he attacked as a threat to Jewish identity. Landau even went so far as to order the public burning of a famous Ḥasidic polemic, the Toledot Yaʿaqov Yosef (“History of Jacob Joseph”) of Jacob Joseph of Polonnoye (died about 1782).

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  • LANDAU, EZEKIEL BEN JUDAH — (1713–1793), halakhic authority of the 18th century, known as the Noda bi Yehudah, after one of his works (see below). Landau was born in Opatow, Poland, and received his talmudic education first in his hometown until the age of 13 and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Landau, Ezekiel ben Judah — (1713 93)    Bohemian halakhic authority. He was born in Opatow, Poland, and served as dayyan of Brody and rabbi of Yampol. In 1754 he became rabbi of Prague and the whole of Bohemia. He attempted to mitigate the conflict between Jadob Emden and… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • LANDAU, ELEAZAR BEN ISRAEL — (1778–1831), rabbi, talmudic scholar, and author. Eleazar Landau, a grandson of ezekiel landau of Prague, was educated in the home of his stepfather Moses Ḥasid of Ropshitz. He took up residence in Lemberg and then in Brody, where he first… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • LANDAU, LEOPOLD — (1848–1920), gynecologist. Landau, a descendant of the rabbi and halakhic authority, ezekiel b. judah landau , was born in Warsaw. On completion of his medical studies, he became a lecturer in gynecology at the University of Breslau (1872–76).… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • LANDAU, MOSES — (1788–1852), printer, publisher, and lexicographer. Born in Prague, grandson of R. Ezekiel Landau , Moses was imbued with the traditional atmosphere of his rabbinical family. At the same time, he devoted himself to secular studies, especially… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Ezechiel Landau — Ezechiel ben Jehuda Landau (hebräisch: יחזקאל לנדא, auch Yechezkel und Ezekiel ben Judah Landau; * 8. Oktober 1713 in Opatów, Königreich Polen; † 29. April 1793 in Prag, Königreich Böhmen) war Dezisor der Halacha, also der jüdischen Rechtslehre,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Siegfried Landau — (born September 4 1921, Berlin; died 20 February 2007, Brushton, New York) was a German born American conductor and composer. He was the son of Ezekiel Landau, an Orthodox rabbi, and Helen (Grynberg) Landau. He was a music student at the Stern… …   Wikipedia

  • Yechezkel Landau — Rabbi Yechezkel Landau Yechezkel ben Yehuda Landau (8 October 1713 – 29 April 1793, Hebrew: יחזקאל לנדא) was an influential authority in halakha (Jewish law). He is best known for the work Noda Biyhudah (נודע ביהודה), by which title he is also… …   Wikipedia

  • MICHAELSON, EZEKIEL ẒEVI BEN ABRAHAM ḤAYYIM — (1863–1942), Polish rabbi, biographer, and bibliographer. He was a child prodigy, and in one of his works he cites responsa which he claims to have written at the age of 12. Orphaned in his early youth, he was forced to move from one place to… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • RICHTMANN, MÓZES — (1880–1972), Hungarian scholar, teacher, and Zionist. Richtmann was born in Homonna (now in Slovakia). He completed his studies at the rabbinical seminary and University of Budapest, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy (1904) and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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