- Laird, Macgregor
▪ British explorerborn 1808, Greenock, Renfrewshire, Scot.died Jan. 9, 1861, London, Eng.Scottish explorer, shipbuilder, and merchant who contributed to the knowledge of the Niger River.In 1832 Laird accompanied his Liverpool firm's expedition, commanded by the Cornish explorer Richard Lander, to the delta of the Niger River. Among the three ships was the Alburkah, a 55-ton paddle-wheeler designed by Laird and the first iron vessel to make an ocean voyage. The expedition proved that the lower Niger could be navigated by oceangoing ships. Laird ascended the Niger to a place about 550 miles (880 km) from the sea and its principal eastern tributary, the Benue, about 80 miles (130 km) above the confluence and formed an accurate idea of its course and source. Of the expedition's 48 European members, all but 9 died from fever or wounds, and Laird never fully recovered from the many hardships of the expedition.After returning to Liverpool in 1834, he published, with R.A.K. Oldfield, Narrative of an Expedition into the Interior of Africa by the River Niger . . . in 1832, 1833, 1834 (1837). He subsequently devoted himself to developing trade in the Niger territory and in 1854 promoted a second expedition, led by the Scottish explorer William Balfour Baikie (Baikie, William Balfour), which penetrated the Benue about 250 miles (400 km) farther than any earlier European exploration. As a result of good organization and the use of quinine to control malaria, not a life was lost, and the venture, a landmark in the development of western Africa, led to expeditions by other traders. Laird also developed transatlantic steamship routes, and his company's ship Sirius was the first to cross the Atlantic from Europe to the United States (1838) entirely under steam power.
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