- Klapka, György
▪ Hungarian military officerborn April 7, 1820, Temesvár, Hung., Austrian Empire [now Timişoara, Rom.]died May 17, 1892, Budapestsoldier and Hungarian nationalist, one of the leaders in the revolutionary war of 1848–49.Klapka entered the Austrian army in 1838, but on the formation of a Hungarian national force in the spring of 1848, he at once joined it. His energy and ability won him rapid promotion, to commander of a corps on Jan. 12, 1849, and to full general on April 6. In the spring offensive of 1849 he commanded a force of 20,000 men, based on the fortress of Komárom (Komarno), that harried the Austrian armies. He held Komárom until Sept. 27, 1849, when he surrendered on honourable terms.Thereafter Klapka lived in exile for many years, at first in England and then in Switzerland, working for Hungarian independence from the Austrian Empire. He was especially active when Austria was involved in crises or wars, as in 1854, 1859, and 1866. During the war between Austria and Sardinia (1859), he helped organize a Hungarian legion in Italy; and in the Austro-Prussian War (1866), as a Prussian major general, he organized a Hungarian corps in Silesia.An amnesty in 1867 allowed Klapka to return to Hungary, where he entered Parliament as a supporter of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, which established the Dual Monarchy of the two nations. In 1877, when war between the Ottoman Empire and Russia seemed imminent, he was engaged to reorganize the Turkish army.Klapka wrote Memoiren (1850); Der Nationalkrieg in Ungarn, 2 vol. (1851; “The National War in Hungary”); Der Krieg im Orient (1855; “The War in the East”), a history of the Crimean War; and further memoirs, Aus meinen Erinnerungen (1887; “My Recollections”), recollections, however, that are not always consistent.
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