▪ Japanese art
      (Japanese: “dry lacquer”), technique of Japanese sculpture and decorative arts in which a figure or vessel is fashioned with many layers of hemp cloth soaked with lacquer, the surface details being subsequently modelled with a mixture of lacquer, sawdust, powdered clay stone, and other materials. The technique has two varieties: hollow kanshitsu (called dakkatsu), made by preparing the rough shape with clay and covering the surface with lacquered hemp cloth, the clay being subsequently removed to leave the inside hollow; and wood-core kanshitsu (mokushin), in which a hemp-cloth coating is applied over a core carved of wood. Vessels are made by the hollow kanshitsu method, sculpture by either method.

      Kanshitsu was imported to Japan from T'ang China in the Nara period (645–794). Some bowls dating from this period are in the Tokyo National Museum, but because kanshitsu was employed at that time chiefly for Buddhist sculpture, extant statues are far more numerous than examples of decorative art. Among the former are Hachi-bu-shū (Eight Supernatural Guardians of the Buddha) and six surviving Jū Dai Deshi (Ten Great Disciples of the Buddha) at the Kōfuku temple in Nara. In the 20th century the hollow kanshitsu technique is still used to create fine lacquer ware such as vases, plates, and bowls.

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