Hay, John

Hay, John

▪ United States statesman
born Oct. 8, 1838, Salem, Ind., U.S.
died July 1, 1905, Newbury, N.H.
 U.S. secretary of state (1898–1905) who skillfully guided the diplomacy of his country during the critical period of its emergence as a great power; he is particularly associated with the Open Door policy toward China.

      Hay studied law in Springfield, Ill., where he met the future president Abraham Lincoln. He served as President Lincoln's private secretary from 1861 to 1865, and under succeeding Republican administrations he held various diplomatic posts in Europe. Following a five-year stint as editorial writer for the New York Tribune, Hay returned to government service and was assistant secretary of state from 1879 to 1881.

      Hay became nationally prominent with the election of President William McKinley, under whom he served as ambassador to Great Britain (1897–98) and then secretary of state. He took part in the Paris peace negotiations to end the Spanish–American War (1898) and was particularly active in promoting the momentous decision to retain the entire Philippine archipelago as one of the spoils of war, thus marking the United States as a major imperialist power.

      Hay is probably best remembered as the promoter of the Open Door policy, which was designed to counter the trend toward divisive spheres of influence in the Orient. In 1899 he sent diplomatic notes to six interested nations proposing equal trading rights in China for all nations. This move was followed by a second Hay Open Door circular in the midst of the Boxer Rebellion in China (1900), proposing that all nations cooperate in preserving that country's territorial and administrative integrity.

      In 1901 Hay negotiated with Great Britain the second Hay–Pauncefote Treaty, giving the United States exclusive rights to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Two years later he assisted President Theodore Roosevelt in the diplomatic maneuvers leading to Panama's (Panama Canal) independence and the beginning of canal construction.

      Throughout his life Hay found time to exercise his considerable literary talent, and his Pike County Ballads and Other Pieces (1871) and his novel The Bread-Winners (1883) were well received. In collaboration with John G. Nicolay, he was also responsible for two historical works that remained standard for many years: Abraham Lincoln: A History (1890) and Lincoln's Complete Works (1894).

Additional Reading
Biographies include Tyler Dennett, John Hay: From Poetry to Politics (1933, reissued 1963); Kenton J. Clymer, John Hay: The Gentleman as Diplomat (1975); and Howard I. Kushner and Anne Hummel Sherrill, John Milton Hay: The Union of Poetry and Politics (1977).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HAY, JOHN MILTON° — (1838–1905), U.S. statesman who supported Romanian and Russian Jewish rights. Hay was a secretary of state under presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt from 1898 to 1905. He was involved in U.S. diplomatic representations during this… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hay,John Milton — Hay (hā), John Milton. 1838 1905. American public official and writer who served as ambassador to Great Britain (1897 1898) and U.S. secretary of state (1898 1905). His literary works include poetry and a life of Abraham Lincoln (1890). * * * …   Universalium

  • Hay, John (Milton) — born Oct. 8, 1838, Salem, Ind., U.S. died July 1, 1905, Newbury, N.H. U.S. diplomat and writer. He studied law in Springfield, Ill., where he met Abraham Lincoln. He served as President Lincoln s private secretary (1861–65) and then held… …   Universalium

  • Hay, John — (1838 1906)    Diplomatist and poet, b. at Salem, Indiana, ed. at Brown Univ., and called to the Illinois Bar, served in the army, and was one of President Lincoln s secs. He then held diplomatic posts at Paris, Madrid, and Vienna, was Ambassador …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • Hay, John (Milton) — (8 oct. 1838, Salem, Ind., EE.UU.–1 jul. 1905, Newbury, N.H.). Diplomático y escritor estadounidense. Estudió derecho en Springfield, Ill., donde conoció a Abraham Lincoln. Fue secretario privado del pdte. Lincoln (1861–65) y luego ocupó cargos… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • John Hay — John Milton Hay (* 8. Oktober 1838 in Salem, Washington County, Indiana; † 1. Juli 1905 in Newbury, New Hampshire) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker (Republikanische Partei) und v …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hay — /hay/, n. John Milton, 1838 1905, U.S. statesman and author. * * * I In agriculture, dried grasses and other foliage used as animal feed. Typical hay crops are timothy, alfalfa, and clover. Usually the material is cut in the field while still… …   Universalium

  • John Hay (homme politique américain) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir John Hay. Portrait de John Hay, secrétaire d État, 1897 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John Hay — Infobox US Cabinet official name=John Milton Hay order=12th title=United States Assistant Secretary of State term start=November 1, 1879 term end=May 3, 1881 predecessor=Frederick W. Seward successor=Robert R. Hitt order2=37th title2=United… …   Wikipedia

  • John Hay Library — The John Hay Library is the second oldest library on the campus of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. Located on Prospect Street, opposite the Van Wickle Gates, it replaced the outgrown former library, now Robinson Hall, as the main… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”