Hawkwood, Sir John

Hawkwood, Sir John

▪ Anglo-Italian mercenary
Italian  byname Giovanni Acuto  
born c. 1320, , Sible Hedingham, Essex, Eng.
died March 16/17, 1394, Florence [Italy]

      mercenary captain who for 30 years played a role in the wars of 14th-century Italy.

      The son of a tanner, Hawkwood chose a soldier's career, serving in the French wars of Edward III, who probably bestowed a knighthood on him. After the Treaty of Brétigny temporarily ended Anglo-French hostilities (1360), Hawkwood became the leader of a free company, going to Italy three years later to join the English band known as the White Company in the service of Pisa. He was elected captain general in January 1364. Using the English longbow and tactics developed by the English in France, he became famous for the rapidity of his movements, made possible by lighter armour and equipment, for his handling of infantry, and for the discipline of his troops.

      Between 1372 and 1378 he alternately served the pope and the duke of Milan, whose illegitimate daughter he married in 1377. The following year he became captain general of Florence, fighting for other clients when his services were not needed by the Florentine republic.

      In 1382 he sold lands given him by the pope in the Romagna (near Ravenna) and bought estates in the vicinity of Florence; nine years later he became an honorary Florentine citizen. In 1394, in preparation to return to England to spend his last years, he sold his Italian properties but died before his plan could be carried out.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Hawkwood, Sir John — (1320 1394)    Known in Italy as Giovanni Acuto, Hawkwood was a British mercenary who commanded the Florentine army against Pisa. He was born in Essex, England, and began his military career in France. In 1364, he led the Pisan army in the war… …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

  • HAWKWOOD, SIR JOHN —    an English captain, born in Essex; embracing the profession of arms, served with distinction at Crécy and Poitiers, and was in consequence knighted by Edward III.; afterwards fought as free lance with his White Company in the wars of Italy,… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood — The Funerary Monument (or Equestrian Monument ) to Sir John Hawkwood [Although the title of “Sir” is ubiquitously attached to Hawkwood’s moniker, there is no documentary evidence of the circumstances under which Hawkwood was knighted; most of his …   Wikipedia

  • Monumento funerario a Sir John Hawkwood — Este artículo está huérfano, pues pocos o ningún artículo enlazan aquí. Por favor, introduce enlaces hacia esta página desde otros artíc …   Wikipedia Español

  • John Hawkwood — John Hawkwood, Fresko im Dom von Florenz John Hawkwood oder Giovanni Acuto (* um 1320–1323 in Sible Hedingham bei Colchester, Essex; † 1394 in Florenz) war ein italienischer Condottiere englischer Herkunft. Leben Bei seinem ersten urkundlich… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Monument funéraire de Sir John Hawkwood — Monument équestre de Sir John Hawkwood Le Monument équestre (ou Monument funéraire) de Sir John Hawkwood est une fresque de Paolo Uccello commémorant le condottiere anglais John Hawkwood …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Monument équestre de Sir John Hawkwood — 43° 46′ 24″ N 11° 15′ 22″ E / 43.77323, 11.25599 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John Hawkwood — Gravure à l effigie de John Hawkwood Sir John Hawkwood, dit en français Jean Haccoude et en italien Giovanni Acuto, né vers 1320 et mort en 1394, est un célèbre mercenaire du Moyen Âge vivant au XIVe siècle et considéré com …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John Hawkwood — Sir John Hawkwood (1320 ndash; 1394) was an English mercenary or condottiero in 14th century Italy. The French chronicler Jean Froissart knew him as Haccoude and Italians as Giovanni Acuto . Hawkwood served first the Pope and then various… …   Wikipedia

  • Hawkwood — John Hawkswood, Fresko im Dom von Florenz. John Hawkwood oder Giovanni Acuto (* um 1320 1323 in Sible Hedingham bei Colchester, Essex; † 1394 in Florenz) war ein italienischer Condottiere englischer Herkunft. Leben Erstes urkundlich belegtes… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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