▪ grand duke of Lithuaniaborn c. 1275died 1341grand duke of Lithuania, the strongest contemporary ruler of eastern Europe.Gediminas succeeded his brother Vytenis (Witen) in 1316 and started the Gediminian dynasty, which included his grandson Jagiełło, later Władysław II of Poland. Gediminas' domain was composed not only of Lithuania proper and Samogitia but also of Volhynia, the northwestern Ukraine, and Belorussia to the Dnieper River. It was his difficult task to neutralize the threat of the Teutonic and Livonian Knights while still maintaining the delicate balance between his pagan Lithuanian and Samogitian subjects, his Orthodox subjects in Russia, and his occasional Roman Catholic allies in Poland and Riga. Gediminas' policy, therefore, was necessarily tentative and ambiguous.In 1322 and 1323 he wrote to Saxon Dominicans and Franciscans and to several cities of the Hanseatic League, offering protection and privileges to monks, merchants, and artisans who would accept his invitation to settle in Lithuania. He also opened direct negotiations with the Holy See, soliciting Pope John XXII's (John XXII) protection against the Knights and claiming that the necessity of national defense against them, rather than any hostility to the church, had kept Lithuania pagan. In October 1323 various ecclesiastical representatives and the grand master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilnius, which Gediminas had recently made his capital, and a compact was signed confirming peaceful relations.The Teutonic Knights, however, strove to nullify Gediminas' gains and refused to abide by the treaty. In response, Gediminas made an alliance with the archbishop and citizens of Riga, attained peaceful promises from his other neighbours, and further strengthened his position by entering an alliance with Roman Catholic Poland and marrying his daughter Aldona to Casimir, son of King Władysław I the Short, in 1325. The Teutonic Knights thereupon resumed the war against Gediminas, and for the remainder of his reign he was primarily concerned with defending his realm against the Knights, whose strength was reinforced by Western crusaders when it became evident that Gediminas would not honour his promise of conversion.
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