Daubrée, Gabriel-Auguste

Daubrée, Gabriel-Auguste

▪ French geochemist
born June 25, 1814, Metz, France
died May 29, 1896, Paris

      French geochemist and a pioneer in the application of experimental methods to the study of diverse geologic phenomena.

      In 1838 Daubrée became regional mining engineer for the département of Haut-Rhin, where he worked for eight years on a geologic map of the region. In 1838 he also became professor of mineralogy and geology at the University of Strasbourg, where he founded an experimental laboratory for the study of geologic and mineralogical processes. In 1861 he was appointed professor of geology at the Museum of Natural Sciences, Paris, and became a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1862 he was made professor at the Imperial School of Mines.

      His earliest works dealt with the synthesis of minerals, the study of mineral formation in hot springs, and the applications of these findings to the origin of mineral deposits. He also carried out experiments on the formation of pebbles, sand, and mud; on the fracturing of rocks with special regard to the formation of joints and geologic faults; and on the metamorphism of rocks and the development of schistosity (recrystallization and formation of thin, irregular plates). Daubrée was inspector general of mines from 1867 to 1886 and remained honorary director of that office until his death. He was elected commander of the Legion of Honour in 1869.

      Although beset with ill health in his later years, he built a large collection of meteorites and in 1886 published Météorites et la constitution géologique du globe (“Meteorites and the Geologic Constitution of the World”). In this work he proposed a classification system for meteorites, presented information on their composition and relationship to terrestrial rocks, and described their change in shape as they pass through the atmosphere. His studies of the chemical action of underground water on limestone are found in Les Eaux souterraines (1887; “Subterranean Waters”), and his most significant work, Études synthétiques de géologie expérimentale (1879; “Synthesis Studies on Experimental Geology”), reflects his primary interest. The minerals daubreeite and daubreelite were named for him.

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Universalium. 2010.

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