Chavez, Cesar

Chavez, Cesar

▪ American labour leader
in full  Cesar Estrada Chavez 
born March 31, 1927, Yuma, Arizona, U.S.
died April 23, 1993, San Luis, Arizona
 organizer of migrant American farmworkers and founder of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) in 1962.

      Chavez, who was a farm labourer himself, grew up in a migrant farm-labour (migrant labour) family of Mexican American descent. He lived in a succession of migrant camps and attended school sporadically. After two years in the U.S. Navy during World War II, Chavez returned to migrant farmwork in Arizona and California. His initial training as an organizer was provided by the Community Services Organization (CSO) in California, a creation of Saul Alinsky (Alinsky, Saul)'s Industrial Areas Foundation. In 1958 Chavez became general director of the CSO, but he resigned four years later to found the NFWA. In September 1965 he began leading what became a five-year strike by California grape pickers and a nationwide boycott of California grapes that attracted liberal support from throughout the country. Subsequent battles with lettuce growers, table-grape growers, and other agribusinesses generally ended with the signing of bargaining agreements. In 1966 the NFWA merged with an American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) group to form the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee. In 1971 this organization became the United Farm Workers of America (UFW).

 By the late 1960s the Teamsters Union had recognized an opportunity in Chavez's success. It entered the fields as a rival organizer, signing up farmworkers for its own union. In 1972 Chavez sought assistance from the AFL-CIO, which offered help against the inroads being made by the Teamsters. After much conflict—both in the fields and in the courts—the UFW signed a peace pact with the Teamsters in 1977, giving the UFW the sole right to organize farmworkers and field-workers.

      In recognition of his nonviolent activism and support of working people, Chavez was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1994. His wife, Helen, accepted the award.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chavez, Cesar Estrada — ▪ 1994       U.S. migrant farm worker and labour leader (b. March 31, 1927, Yuma, Ariz. found dead April 23, 1993, San Luis, Ariz.), was an inspirational Hispanic leader who quit his job in the fields to organize poorly paid Mexican American… …   Universalium

  • Chavez, Cesar (Estrada) — born March 31, 1927, Yuma, Ariz., U.S. died April 23, 1993, San Luis, Ariz. U.S. organizer and leader of migrant farmworkers. As the child of Mexican American migrant labourers, he spent his early years in a succession of migrant camps, attending …   Universalium

  • Chávez, César (Estrada) — (31 mar. 1927, Yuma, Ariz., EE.UU.–23 abr. 1993, San Luis, Ariz.). Organizador y líder estadounidense de los obreros agrícolas inmigrantes. Hijo de jornaleros inmigrantes mexicano estadounidenses, pasó sus primeros años en varios campos para… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Cesar Chavez — César Estrada Chávez (* 31. März 1927 in Yuma, Arizona; † 23. April 1993 in San Luis, Arizona) war der Gründer der US amerikanischen Landarbeitergewerkschaft United Farm Workers. Chávez wurde 1927 als das zweite von fünf Kindern einer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • César Chávez — César Estrada Chávez César Estrada Chavez (1974) Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • César Chávez (Texas) — César Chávez Lugar designado por el censo de los Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

  • Chávez — Chavez oder Chávez ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Carlos Chávez Ramírez (1899–1978), mexikanischer Komponist César Chávez (1927–1993), US amerikanischer Gewerkschaftsgründer Coronado Chávez (1807–1881), von 1845 bis 1847 Präsident von… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Cesar Chavez — César Chávez César Chávez César Estrada Chávez est un syndicaliste paysan américain, de Californie. Il est né le 31 mars 1927 à Yuma (Arizona) de parents fermiers d origine mexicaine; c est donc un chicano. Il es …   Wikipédia en Français

  • César Chavez — César Chávez César Chávez César Estrada Chávez est un syndicaliste paysan américain, de Californie. Il est né le 31 mars 1927 à Yuma (Arizona) de parents fermiers d origine mexicaine; c est donc un chicano. Il es …   Wikipédia en Français

  • César Estrada Chavez — César Chávez César Chávez César Estrada Chávez est un syndicaliste paysan américain, de Californie. Il est né le 31 mars 1927 à Yuma (Arizona) de parents fermiers d origine mexicaine; c est donc un chicano. Il es …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”