Chavez, Cesar Estrada

Chavez, Cesar Estrada
▪ 1994

      U.S. migrant farm worker and labour leader (b. March 31, 1927, Yuma, Ariz.—found dead April 23, 1993, San Luis, Ariz.), was an inspirational Hispanic leader who quit his job in the fields to organize poorly paid Mexican-American migrant farm labourers into the nation's first successful union of agricultural workers, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA), the forerunner of the United Farm Workers of America (UFW). Chavez had begun working beside his parents in the fields by the time he was 10. He sporadically attended some 65 different schools and lived in a succession of migrant worker camps before serving in the navy during World War II. After the war he returned to migrant farm work in Arizona and California. Chavez received training as an organizer from California's Community Service Organization (CSO), a creation of Saul Alinsky's Industrial Areas Foundation. He served as general director (1958-62) of the CSO before founding the NFWA in 1962. Chavez captured national attention in 1965, when he became the driving force in what became a five-year California grape pickers strike, and again in 1968, when he led a nationwide boycott of California table grapes. He remained in the public eye by fasting and by inviting arrest to dramatize his fight with both grape growers and iceberg lettuce producers. By 1970, with 17 million Americans supporting the grape boycott, growers had agreed to sign with the union. Though the Teamsters union tried to organize field hands, they abandoned the effort in 1977. Meanwhile, the UFWA had merged with an AFL-CIO farm group to form UFWOC, the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee, AFL-CIO in 1966. That organization became the UFW in 1971. Chavez, who ruled the union with an authoritarian hand, eventually lost the support of his top aides, who resigned. Union membership also dwindled from 100,000 to some 20,000 members as it became increasingly difficult for Chavez to concentrate on organization efforts when he became involved in encounter programs, holistic medicine, vegetarianism, meditation, and faith healing. Chavez died in his sleep of natural causes.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Chavez, Cesar (Estrada) — born March 31, 1927, Yuma, Ariz., U.S. died April 23, 1993, San Luis, Ariz. U.S. organizer and leader of migrant farmworkers. As the child of Mexican American migrant labourers, he spent his early years in a succession of migrant camps, attending …   Universalium

  • Chávez, César (Estrada) — (31 mar. 1927, Yuma, Ariz., EE.UU.–23 abr. 1993, San Luis, Ariz.). Organizador y líder estadounidense de los obreros agrícolas inmigrantes. Hijo de jornaleros inmigrantes mexicano estadounidenses, pasó sus primeros años en varios campos para… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • César Estrada Chavez — César Chávez César Chávez César Estrada Chávez est un syndicaliste paysan américain, de Californie. Il est né le 31 mars 1927 à Yuma (Arizona) de parents fermiers d origine mexicaine; c est donc un chicano. Il es …   Wikipédia en Français

  • César Estrada Chávez — César Chávez César Chávez César Estrada Chávez est un syndicaliste paysan américain, de Californie. Il est né le 31 mars 1927 à Yuma (Arizona) de parents fermiers d origine mexicaine; c est donc un chicano. Il es …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chavez, Cesar — ▪ American labour leader in full  Cesar Estrada Chavez  born March 31, 1927, Yuma, Arizona, U.S. died April 23, 1993, San Luis, Arizona  organizer of migrant American farmworkers and founder of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) in 1962 …   Universalium

  • Cesar Estrada Chavez — noun United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927) • Syn: ↑Chavez, ↑Cesar Chavez • Instance Hypernyms: ↑labor leader …   Useful english dictionary

  • Cesar Chavez — César Estrada Chávez (* 31. März 1927 in Yuma, Arizona; † 23. April 1993 in San Luis, Arizona) war der Gründer der US amerikanischen Landarbeitergewerkschaft United Farm Workers. Chávez wurde 1927 als das zweite von fünf Kindern einer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Cesar Chavez — César Chávez César Chávez César Estrada Chávez est un syndicaliste paysan américain, de Californie. Il est né le 31 mars 1927 à Yuma (Arizona) de parents fermiers d origine mexicaine; c est donc un chicano. Il es …   Wikipédia en Français

  • César Chavez — César Chávez César Chávez César Estrada Chávez est un syndicaliste paysan américain, de Californie. Il est né le 31 mars 1927 à Yuma (Arizona) de parents fermiers d origine mexicaine; c est donc un chicano. Il es …   Wikipédia en Français

  • César Chávez — This article is about the civil rights activist. For the boxer, see Julio César Chávez. For the ship, see USNS Cesar Chavez (T AKE 14). César Chávez …   Wikipedia

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