- Chamoun, Camille
▪ president of LebanonChamoun also spelled Shamʿunborn April 3, 1900, Dayr al-Qamar, Lebanondied Aug. 7, 1987, Beirutpolitical leader who served as president of Lebanon in 1952–58.Chamoun spent his early political years as a member of a political faction known as the Constitutional Bloc, a predominantly Christian group that emphasized its Arabic heritage in an attempt to establish a rapport with the Muslim groups. By the late 1940s Chamoun had emerged as one of the bloc's most prominent members. When his expectations of succeeding Bishara al-Khuri as president of Lebanon were denied in 1948 by a renewal of Khuri's term, Chamoun began to organize a parliamentary opposition. By the summer of 1952 he had made an alliance with Kamal Jumblatt, leader of the Progressive Socialist Party, and had won extensive support throughout the country. That September a general strike forced Khuri's resignation, and Chamoun was elected president. Although Jumblatt had helped secure his election, Chamoun ignored him when it came to formulating government policies.As president, Chamoun reorganized governmental departments in an attempt to realize a more efficient administration. In some respects his regime was thoroughly democratic; the press and rival political parties, for example, enjoyed full freedom. But Lebanese political life remained geared to serving special interests, and Chamoun's reforms bore little fruit.Chamoun faced a crisis in 1956 when Muslim leaders demanded that he break relations with Britain and France, which had just attacked Egypt over rights to the Suez Canal. Chamoun not only refused to do this but also named a pro-Western minister of foreign affairs. In May 1958 armed rebellion broke out in Beirut, supported mostly by Muslim elements. The Lebanese army commander, refusing to quell the rebellion, acted only to prevent its spread to other areas. Chamoun appealed to the United States for aid, and U.S. marines landed near Beirut in July, ending the military threat to the government. Demands persisted that Chamoun resign; he refused but did not seek a second term. After a brief retirement he was elected to Parliament in 1960. When civil war erupted in 1975, he became involved in defending Lebanon against Syrian intervention and held a succession of ministerial posts, including minister of finance in 1984–85. He supported a plan for the creation of provinces along religious lines.He published several autobiographical works, including Crise au Leban (1977; “Crisis in Lebanon”) and Mémoires et souvenirs (1979; “Memories and Remembrances”).
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