Calmette, Albert

Calmette, Albert

▪ French bacteriologist
in full  Albert Léon Charles Calmette  
born July 12, 1863, Nice, France
died Oct. 29, 1933, Paris

      French bacteriologist, pupil of Louis Pasteur, and codeveloper with Camille Guérin (Guérin, Camille) of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). He also described a diagnostic test for tuberculosis, known as Calmette's reaction.

      Calmette graduated in medicine in 1886 in Paris. In 1891 he founded the Pasteur Institute at Saigon, Indochina, where he discovered a protective serum against snake venom. After his return to France, he founded and became director (1896–1919) of the Pasteur Institute at Lille. There in 1908 he discovered that virulent bovine tubercle bacilli became less virulent when cultured on a bile-containing medium. These attenuated bacilli were still able to confer a certain amount of immunity against infection with either bovine or human tubercle bacilli. This avirulent strain was used to make BCG, which was introduced about 15 years later for the vaccination of children against tuberculosis. Although widely used in continental Europe, the vaccine was not adopted in the United States and Great Britain until after Calmette's death—not until American studies in 1940 and a trial sponsored by the British Medical Research Council (reported in 1956) indicated BCG's substantial protective action against tuberculosis.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Calmette, Albert — ► (1863 1933) Médico y bacteriólogo francés. Descubrió junto con Guérin, la vacuna BCG (Biliado Calmette Guerin) preventiva de la tuberculosis …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Calmette, Albert (Léon Charles) — (12 jul. 1863, Niza, Francia–29 oct. 1933, París). Bacteriólogo francés. En la década de 1890 fundó los institutos bacteriológicos Pasteur de Saigón y, más tarde, de Lille. En 1908 descubrió que las bacterias de la tuberculosis del ganado se… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Calmette, Albert (Léon Charles) — born July 12, 1863, Nice, Fr. died Oct. 29, 1933, Paris French bacteriologist. In the 1890s he founded the Pasteur bacteriological institutes in Saigon and later Lille. He discovered in 1908 that tuberculosis bacteria from cattle were weakened… …   Universalium

  • Calmette — Calmette, Albert …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Albert Calmette — Léon Charles Albert Calmette ( * 12 de julio de 1863 – 29 de octubre de 1933) fue un médico …   Wikipedia Español

  • Albert — Albert, Catalina * * * (as used in expressions) Achebe, (Albert) Chinua(lumogu) Barnes, Albert C(oombs) Beveridge, Albert J(eremiah) Bierstadt, Albert Billroth, (Christian Albert) Theodor Blakeslee, Albert Francis Brisbane, Albert Charles Albert… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Calmette — (Albert) (1863 1933) bactériologiste français. Il mit au point avec C. Guérin un vaccin antituberculeux (B.C.G.) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Calmette — Calmette,   Albert Léon Charles, französischer Bakteriologe, * Nizza 12. 7. 1863, ✝ Paris 29. 10. 1933; war Marinearzt, ab 1886 Professor und Direktor des Institut Pasteur in Saigon, ab 1894 in Lille, später Abteilungsleiter im Pariser Institut… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Albert Calmette — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Calmette. Albert Calmette Léon Charles Albert Calmette est un médecin et bactériologiste militaire français, né le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Calmette-Prozess — Bei der Einführung der BCG Schutzimpfung gegen Tuberkulose kam es 1930 in Lübeck zum Lübecker Impfunglück, dem größten Impfunglück des 20. Jahrhunderts. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Hintergrund 2 Calmette Prozess 3 Folgen 4 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”