▪ patriarch of ConstantinopleGreek Callistosdied 1363, Constantinople [now Istanbul, Turkey]patriarch of Constantinople, theologian, and hagiographer, an advocate of a Byzantine school of mystical prayer that he upheld by the authority of his office and by his writings.A monk of Mount Athos, Callistus became a disciple of the method of prayer known as Hesychasm. He was a disciple of St. Gregory Palamas of Mount Athos and St. Gregory of Sinai, who, as proponents of Hesychasm, integrated a coordinated discipline of controlled breathing, concentration, and prayer.After succeeding to the patriarchal throne in June 1350, Callistus convened, in the following year, a synod in Constantinople that vindicated Hesychasm as the preeminent method of Orthodox contemplative prayer. He was forced to resign his office in 1353 because he refused to crown Matthew Cantacuzenus emperor to succeed his father. After the abdication of the elder Cantacuzenus in 1354, Callistus returned as patriarch and, in his strongly conservative outlook, reorganized the parish system of churches under the surveillance of an exarch (patriarchal deputy). Attempting to strengthen patriarchal control over the various Orthodox churches, he excommunicated the Serbian tsar, Stefan Dušan (c. 1354), for establishing an independent patriarchate.The anti-Hesychasts in their historical accounts depicted Callistus as a power-mad tyrant and obstinate reactionary. He spread Hesychast doctrine particularly through the writing of biographies of St. Gregory of Sinai and of the Bulgarian Theodosius of Tŭrnovo. Some of his sermons and conferences were discovered early in the 20th century.
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