județ (county), northern Romania, occupying an area of 2,048 square miles (5,305 square km). The forested Eastern Carpathian Mountains, including the Rodna (Rodna Massif) and Căliman massifs, rise above the settlement areas in intermontane valleys. The Căliman Massif (6,896 feet [2,096 metres]) is the largest one of volcanic origin in Romania. The Someșul Mare and its tributaries, including the Țibleș and Illișua rivers, flow southwestward through the county. Bistrița is the county capital. Neolithic remains and Bronze Age tombs were found in Bistrița city, and remains of a Dacian citadel are in Sărățel town. Agricultural activities consist mostly of wine growing and livestock raising. Wood and pulp products are manufactured in Bistrița, Năsăud, and Ilva-Mică. Building materials are produced in Bistrița and Sângeorz-Băi. Pyrite has been mined near Rodna since the 15th century. Rodna is a tourist centre for the picturesque Lake Lala, Vințului Valley, and Mount Ineu (7,809 feet). Bârgăul village, the centre of a substantial folk-art community, is situated near the pyramid-shaped Mount Henuil Mare (5,289 feet). Coșbuc town is named for the poet Gheorghe Coșbuc (1866–1918), who was born there. Beclean, Năsăud, and Rodna towns are noted for the architecture of their churches. A museum in Năsăud contains medieval weapons, ceramics, and money; and Reteag town has a museum devoted to Ion Pop Reteagul (1853–1905), a folktale chronicler and collector of folk art. Major highway and railway connections parallel the Someșul Mare and Bistrița rivers. Pop. (2002) 311,657.
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