- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
organization that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional economic blocs (such as the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area (North American Free Trade Agreement)) in other parts of the world, APEC works to raise living standards and education levels through sustainable economic growth and to foster a sense of community and an appreciation of shared interests among Asia-Pacific countries. At the end of the 1990s APEC's membership included its 12 founding members—Australia, Brunei, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and the United States—as well as Chile, China, Hong Kong, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Russia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), the South Pacific Forum (Pacific Islands Forum) (SPF), and the secretariat of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (ASEAN) maintain observer status.At its 1994 summit meeting, APEC set an ambitious goal of achieving a free trade and investment regime in the Asia-Pacific region by 2010 for members with developed economies and by 2020 for members with developing ones. The following year it adopted the Osaka Action Agenda, a plan to implement APEC's goals of liberalizing trade and investment, facilitating business activities, and promoting economic and technical cooperation. Despite these commitments, APEC's effectiveness has been limited by its requirement that all its decisions be made by consensus. Although APEC seeks unanimity, decisions can be taken in the absence of unanimity; however, decisions are not legally binding on member governments.APEC is organized into numerous committees, ad hoc policy groups, working groups, and a business advisory council. The committees, which examine issues such as trade and investment, economic trends, and budgetary matters, meet twice per year. The working groups are headed by experts and consider specific issues, including energy, tourism, fishing, transportation, and telecommunications. The organization's chair, which rotates annually, hosts an annual summit meeting and meetings of foreign and economic ministers and other senior officials. The APEC secretariat, established in 1993 and headquartered in Singapore, provides advisory and logistic services as well as research and analysis.Chung-in MoonAdditional ReadingDevelopments in APEC and related regional organizations are described in Ross Garnaut and Peter Drysdale (eds.), Asia Pacific Regionalism (1994); Anthony McGrew and Christopher Brook (eds.), Asia-Pacific in the New World Order (1998); and Lawrence T. Woods, Asia-Pacific Diplomacy: Nongovernmental Organizations and International Relations (1993).
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