- Kirkland, Lane
▪ 2000American labour leader (b. March 12, 1922, Camden, S.C.—d. Aug. 14, 1999, Washington, D.C.), served as president of the American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) from 1979 to 1995. After graduating (1942) from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, N.Y., he served as an officer on American merchant ships during World War II. He earned a bachelor's degree from Georgetown University's Walsh School of Foreign Service, Washington, D.C., in 1948 and went to work as a researcher at the American Federation of Labor, which merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955. He was appointed executive assistant to AFL-CIO president George Meany in 1960 and was elected secretary-treasurer, the AFL-CIO's second-highest post, in 1969. Upon Meany's retirement in 1979, Kirkland was elected to the first of his two eight-year terms as president. Under his leadership, the AFL-CIO became increasingly involved in international affairs; most notably, it lent considerable support to Poland's Solidarity movement, channeling funds and equipment and providing organizational help to the movement's leader, Lech Walesa. Many critics, however, faulted Kirkland for not devoting more attention to domestic affairs at a time when the influence of American unions was in sharp decline. Although Kirkland was credited with inducing such powerful unions as the Teamsters and the United Auto Workers to return to the AFL-CIO after they had left the organization, union membership in the U.S. dropped by more than a third during his tenure. Kirkland retired in 1995 after some 20 major union leaders formally declared their opposition to granting him a third term.
* * *▪ American labour leaderin full Joseph Lane Kirklandborn March 12, 1922, Camden, South Carolina, U.S.died August 14, 1999, Washington, D.C.American labour union leader who was president of the American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) from 1979 to 1995.Kirkland graduated from the United States Merchant Marine Academy in 1942 and then served as an officer on American merchant ships throughout World War II. He settled in Washington, D.C., and after earning a bachelor's degree from Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service in 1948, he became a staff researcher for the American Federation of Labor. He rose through the administrative ranks of the AFL and in 1960 became an executive assistant to George Meany (Meany, George), the president of the merged AFL-CIO. In 1960 Kirkland was elected secretary-treasurer of the AFL-CIO, and when Meany retired in 1979, Kirkland succeeded him as president.One of Kirkland's major accomplishments was persuading many of the unions that previously had separated from the AFL-CIO to rejoin the federation. Among the major unions to return were the United Automobile Workers of America (United Automobile Workers) in 1981, the Teamsters Union in 1987, and the United Mine Workers of America in 1989.Despite these additions to AFL-CIO membership, overall enrollments in the union—and thus its political influence—waned during Kirkland's 16-year presidency. Shrinking employment in the U.S. manufacturing sector caused some of the membership loss, as did other unfavourable economic trends. Some also blamed Kirkland for the decline, and he was resoundingly criticized by fellow labour leaders who felt that he was far too absorbed in foreign labour issues. Notably, Kirkland gave his full support to Poland's Solidarity trade union, contributing several million dollars of AFL-CIO money to that cause. A staunch anticommunist, he was proud to have supported the union that helped topple the communist government of Poland in 1990; however, American labour leaders complained that the union money spent on foreign affairs should have gone to programs that would benefit American workers.Kirkland was also criticized for failing to organize new unions in the growing service and professional industries. These issues came to a head in August 1995 when a large group of union presidents who opposed his policies forced Kirkland's resignation. He was succeeded by John Sweeney, former president of the Service Employees International Union, which had grown from 626,000 to 1,100,000 members under his leadership.In 1994 Kirkland was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
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