retrograde motion

retrograde motion
In astronomy, the actual or apparent motion of a body in a direction opposite to that of the predominant (direct or prograde) motions of similar bodies.

Observationally and historically, retrograde motion refers to the apparent reversal of the planets' motion through the stars for several months in each synodic period. This required a complex explanation in Earth-centred models of the universe (see Ptolemy) but was naturally explained in heliocentric models (see Copernican system) by the apparent motion as Earth passed by a planet in its orbit. It is now known that nearly all bodies in the solar system revolve and rotate in the same counterclockwise direction as viewed from a position in space above Earth's North Pole. This common direction probably arose during the formation of the solar nebula. The relatively few objects with clockwise motions (e.g., the rotation of Venus, Uranus, and Pluto) are also described as retrograde.

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      in astronomy, actual or apparent motion of a body in a direction opposite to that of the (direct) motions of most members of the solar system or of other astronomical systems with a preferred direction of motion. As viewed from a position in space north of the solar system (from some great distance above the Earth's North Pole), all the major planets revolve counterclockwise around the Sun, and all but Venus and Uranus rotate counterclockwise on their own axes; these two, therefore, have retrograde rotation. Of the known satellites of the planets, a minority display retrograde revolution. These include the four outermost moons of Jupiter; Phoebe, the outermost moon of Saturn; and Triton, the largest of Neptune's moons. The orbital planes of the satellites of Uranus are tilted so greatly that the description of these bodies' motion as either retrograde or direct has little meaning. The revolutions around the Sun of all known asteroids are direct; of the known periodic comets, only a few, one of which is Halley's Comet, move in a retrograde orbit.

      A separate sense of the term retrograde motion refers to the apparent brief reversal of the motion of a planet as seen from Earth; the effect depends upon the difference in orbital speeds of the planets.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Retrograde motion — This article is about retrograde motions of celestial bodies relative to a gravitationally central object. For the apparent motion as seen from a particular vantage point, see Apparent retrograde motion. Retrograde orbit: the satellite (red)… …   Wikipedia

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  • retrograde motion — noun Motion of a body (either real or apparent) in a direction opposite to that of its normal motion, or to that of other similar or related bodies …   Wiktionary

  • retrograde — [re′trə grād΄] adj. [ME < L retrogradus < retrogradi, to go backward: see RETRO & GRADE] 1. moving or directed backward; retiring or retreating 2. inverse or reverse: said of order 3. going back or tending to go back to an earlier, esp.… …   English World dictionary

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  • retrograde — ► ADJECTIVE 1) directed or moving backwards. 2) (of the order of something) reversed; inverse. 3) reverting to an earlier and inferior condition. 4) chiefly Astronomy proceeding in a reverse direction from normal, especially (of planetary motion) …   English terms dictionary

  • Retrograde and direct motion — Direct motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called prograde motion. Retrograde motion is motion in the opposite direction. In the case of celestial bodies,… …   Wikipedia

  • retrograde — I. adjective Etymology: Middle English, from Latin retrogradus, from retrogradi Date: 14th century 1. a. (1) having or being motion in a direction contrary to that of the general motion of similar bodies and especially east to west among the… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • retrograde — retrogradely, adv. retrogradingly, adv. /re treuh grayd /, adj., v., retrograded, retrograding. adj. 1. moving backward; having a backward motion or direction; retiring or retreating. 2. inverse or reversed, as order. 3. Chiefly Biol. exhibiting… …   Universalium

  • retrograde — /ˈrɛtrəgreɪd / (say retruhgrayd) adjective 1. moving backwards; having a backward motion or direction; retiring or retreating. 2. returning to an earlier and inferior state: a retrograde step. 3. inverse or reversed, as order. 4. Chiefly Biology… …  

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