- musical notation
Written, printed, or other visual representation of music.There are two basic approaches to notating music. Tablature (such as guitar chord diagrams) depicts the actions a performer is to take (in particular, showing where to put the fingers to produce a given sound). Symbolic notation describes the sounds themselves and includes methods that vary from assigning pitches different letters of the alphabet to representing a given combination of notes by a graphic sign. The Western notation system combines rhythmic notation (the appearance of a note indicates its duration) with pitch notation (the line or space on a staff where a note is placed indicates its pitch). Thus, a single symbol shows both pitch and duration, and a string of these symbols notates both melody and rhythm.
* * *Introductionvisual record of heard or imagined musical sound, or a set of visual instructions for performance of music. It usually takes written or printed form and is a conscious, comparatively laborious process. Its use is occasioned by one of two motives: as an aid to memory or as communication. By extension of the former, it helps the shaping of a composition (musical composition) to a level of sophistication that is impossible in a purely oral tradition. By extension of the latter, it serves as a means of preserving music (although incompletely and imperfectly) over long periods of time, facilitates performance by others, and presents music in a form suitable for study and analysis.The primary elements of musical sound are pitch, or the location of musical sound on the scale (hence interval, or distance, between notes); duration (hence rhythm, metre, tempo); timbre or tone colour; and volume (hence stress, attack). In practice, no notation can handle all of these elements with precision. Most cope with a selection of them in varying degrees of refinement. Some handle only a single pattern—e.g., a melody, a rhythm; others handle several simultaneous patterns.General principles of Western staff notationThe position of staff notation as the first notational system to be described in this article acknowledges its international acceptance in the 20th century. As an indirect result of colonization, of missionary activity, and of ethnomusicological research—not because of any innate superiority—it has become a common language among many musical cultures.Pitch and durationStaff notation (musical notation), as it has developed, is essentially a graph. Its vertical axis is pitch, its horizontal axis, time; and note heads are dots plotting the graph's curve. The five horizontal lines of a musical staff function like horizontal rulings of graph paper, bar lines like vertical rulings. In practice, the system is far more complex and sophisticated than this. The vertical axis of pitch operates to represent melodic contour in music for a single instrument or voice; but when several staves are combined to form a score, the principle breaks down, each staff being a self-contained vertical system. Representation of time (duration) by horizontal spacing is used only in a very limited way. It is in reality made almost redundant because the symbol for a note gives the necessary information itself: not its absolute duration but its duration in relation to the notes around it. These symbols are as follows; each has half the duration of its neighbour to the left:A system of “rests” measures silence in the same way:A dot placed to the right of a note head increases by half the duration of that note. Such symbols when placed on a staff may indicate relative pitch and relative duration. In the grid, lines represent alternate notes of the scale and the spaces the intervening notes. Pitch and duration may be fixed by supplying two further indications: a clef and a tempo mark. The clef assigns a definite pitch to a given line of the staff; the first clef fixes the second line up as the G (g′) above middle C (c′):Tempo and durationThe tempo mark is a sign that lies outside the staff. It appears above and may be a precise fixing of one duration (“♩ = 120 MM” means that the quarter note lasts 1/120 of a minute, or one-half second), or it may be an approximate verbal indication setting tempo by reference to accepted conventions (allegro, or quickly; moderato, or moderate speed; etc.).Staff notation is well adapted to two fundamental aspects of Western music: harmony and rhythm. For harmony, note symbols can easily be placed vertically together on a single stem, and these notes need not be all of the same duration; or more than one stem may be used to indicate multiple melodic lines in the musical texture. For rhythm, the existence of an underlying regular pulse, or stress (accent), must be indicated. This is achieved by two devices: the bar line and the time signature. The bar line primarily indicates a point of main stress. Bar lines are usually equally spaced as to duration, though there are numerous exceptions. A time signature indicates, first, the duration of the space between two bar lines (a measure, or bar); and, second, the subsidiary stress patterns within that space. A supplementary system for indicating stress is the device of linking successive notes together by beaming, or stroking. Two eighth notes may be linked together as shown in (a); four sixteenth notes (b); or a mixed group of values (c):The implication of such grouping is generally that the first note carries a stress. Beaming thus may be used either to reinforce the stress patterns of the time signature (the metre) or to contradict it and set up a cross rhythm.Accidentals (accidental)Staff notation rests firmly on the Western system of scales, within which all notes are assumed to be natural unless accidentals precede them or a key signature is in use. An accidental (♭, or flat; ♯, or sharp) is a temporary lowering or raising of pitch by a semitone; a key signature is the use of the same signs on a more permanent basis, valid to the end of a piece or until countermanded by a new signature. Another accidental, the natural (♮), cancels a previously indicated flat or sharp and may be used to alter one note or in a key signature to emphasize a key change. Any combination of sharps or flats is theoretically possible in a key signature, but the actual combinations are usually governed by the Western system of keys, or groups of interrelated notes and chords.Auxiliary signsTimbre and volume are specified through a variety of additional signs: symbols such as (stress) and (increase in volume), and verbal instructions (frequently in Italian) such as forte (loud) and col legno (with the wood of the bow) placed above or below the staff wherever space permits. Additional symbols may also provide information about pitch and duration: the dot for staccato, the fermata, or hold sign (), the phrase mark, indications of amount of vibrato, and so forth. Other verbal instructions indicate the general manner of performance (pesante, “heavy”; cantabile, “songlike”; etc.) or expression (con dolore, “with suffering”; giocoso, “playfully”; etc.). Further, there are for each type of instrument certain technical signs, as for bowing, breathing, tonguing, or use of mutes.Other auxiliary signs are a kind of shorthand. Most important are symbols indicating notes not shown on the staff. An ornament (ornamentation) sign may call for additional notes to be played within the value of a note. It may even delay the sounding of the main note. The precise meaning of such an ornament varies from one style of music to another and must be interpreted according to the conventions governing a particular style.Comparable to the use of “shorthand” signs for ornaments is the system of placing arabic numerals beneath a bass (basso continuo) line in keyboard music of the 17th and 18th centuries. A numeral, or “figure,” signifies a harmonic (i.e., a vertical) interval; thus a “6” indicates a note six degrees of the scale above a given bass note (A above C, for example). It is in itself an imprecise measurement, specifying neither whether the interval is major or minor nor in which octave register that upper note should be played. But the figures are governed by the same prevailing key signature as notes on the staff and can, like notes, carry their own accidentals. They are thus not an independent type of notation but a hybrid representation of interval/pitch that works in conjunction with staff notation. Its purpose is to indicate the harmonies implied by a bass line (even absence of figuring has a meaning) while at the same time leaving the player free to choose the precise notes to be played. The systems of letters and figures used by jazz musicians have this same imprecision; they are less dependent upon conjunction with staff notation but lack clear rhythmic significance unless allied to staff notation in at least a simplified form. They operate by defining a harmony in relation to the tonic chord (the chord built on the key note, or tonic) rather than by interval or pitch.Evolution of Western staff notationNeumesStaff notation has its roots in the neumatic notations of plainchant and secular song of the 9th–12th century. Neumes were graphic signs indicating essentially the rise and fall of the voice. Their origin lies probably 1,000 years earlier in signs devised by Greek and Roman grammarians to guide declamation, such as / acutus (high voice), gravis (low), and ∧ circumflexus (falling). The musical adaptations of these signs took many different regional forms. Unlike note symbols in staff notation, neumes (neume), with two exceptions, comprised two, three, four, or more notes each and indicated their approximate relative pitches. Each comprised the notes belonging to a single syllable of text, though in florid chant the notes of a single syllable might be split up into several neumes:Neumes were only a memory aid to singers who knew words and melody by heart. Between the 10th and 12th centuries, however, there occurred significant developments toward a notation that could be sight-read. “Heighted,” or “diastematic,” neumes were spaced on the page in relation to each other, so that an entire line of them formed a continuous graph of pitch over the words of text:Eventually, precision of pitch was further achieved by using horizontal scratched lines as a grid on which to space the neumes, so that degrees of the scale fell alternately on a line or in a space, and by colouring one line red to signify the pitch F and possibly another yellow to signify C—or by placing a letter F or C at the beginning of the appropriate line. Together, the two devices fixed the relative pitches of all notes by indicating where the semitones of the scale occurred (that is, immediately below the marked lines: E–F or B♮–C). In the 11th century two signs from a quite different system of notation (alphabetical notation; see below) were incorporated as accidentals before the pitch “B”: b, the ancestor of ♭; , the ancestor of ♮ and ♯, and also of the German “h,” which refers to b♮. These two signs were progressively applied to other pitches in the following centuries. By the 13th century a four-line staff ruled entirely in black or red had become established, using stylized forms of the letters f, c, and g (ancestors of the modern , , and ) as clefs. For polyphonic music a five-line staff became standard by the 14th century, but keyboard music in some countries used six- or seven-line staves as late as the mid-17th century.During the 12th century, in northern and northeastern France the thin, curved lines of neumes were drawn more thickly at the points corresponding to the separate notes within them. In time, a firmly rectilinear notation of heavy horizonal pen strokes, diamond-shaped dots, and hairline vertical strokes emerged, whose groups of notes are called “ligatures”:This was the notation of the troubadours' and trouvères' songs; also of plainchant from the 13th century to the present day. It was also used in 12th-century polyphony for the upper voices, which were without text. Freed from syllabic considerations, the grouping of notes into ligatures took on rhythmic significance, specific groupings representing short, repeated patterns called rhythmic modes:A ligature did not yet have a single, unvarying meaning. Its rhythmic pattern depended upon context.The freeing of ligatures from considerations of context occurred during the early 13th century. Time values for ligatures, single notes, and rests were codified around 1260 by the influential theorist Franco of Cologne. The notes then in use included the duple long, later called maxima (); long (); breve (); and semibreve (). In French music a shorter note value was created: the minim ().These note symbols provided the basis for notation (musical notation) from the late 13th to the late 15th century. This system, called mensural notation, was based on several fundamental principles that determined the value of a note relative to that of its neighbours. In the terminology of mensural notation a given note might be either perfect—i.e., divided into three notes of the next lesser time value; or imperfect—i.e., divided into two notes of the next lesser value. Thus, as in part (a) of the example below, a long might be perfect, containing three breves; or imperfect, containing two breves.To determine which note symbols were perfect and imperfect for a given piece, special symbols were devised: , , , , , , , , , etc. (Of these and survive, together with fractions such as , as modern time signatures.)Specific rules provided for lengthening or shortening the value of notes in certain instances. To “imperfect” a long meant to shorten it by one-third of its value; this occurred when the long was preceded or followed by a breve or by notes equalling a breve in value, as shown in part (b) of the example below (for purposes of illustration, numbers have been placed under the notes showing their time value relative to the shortest note). Part (c) of the example shows another common alteration of time value: in a composition in which the long is perfect, a breve (brevis) preceding it may be doubled in value under certain conditions.The time-value relationships between breve and long similarly applied to the other pairs of notes: maxima and long (longa); breve and semibreve (semibrevis); and semibreve and minim (minima).As the system of mensural notation evolved, another device, coloration, came into use. If a composer wished to render a potentially perfect note imperfect, he could write it in red or as a hollow note (as , , ); these two devices had, however, various other, less common meanings. About 1400, hollow note shapes were adopted where full black notes had hitherto been used, and full black served as coloration. The notes then current and their corresponding rests were as follows:Transition to modern staff notationIn 16th-century manuscripts and, later, in printed music, the diamond-headed notes became rounded. Ligatures were used less often in the later 15th century. The principles of perfection and imperfection gave way to the modern relationship of 2 to 1 between adjacent note values, with the dot adding an extra half value to give a 3 to 1 relationship.Shorter note values were also introduced, and the old, longer ones became obsolete. Yet, because of a paradoxical survival from 15th-century practice, slow music has tended to be written in short values (e.g., Beethoven's slow movements) and fast music in long values.The bar line as a measure of metre arose first in 15th-century tablatures (notation showing playing position rather than pitch, as for lute). Barring entered staff notation in the 17th century, but regularly spaced barring became a practice only in the 18th century. Separate tempo indications, arising first in the 17th century, were verbally expressed; for example, adagio, largo, presto. The range of these terms greatly increased during the 18th and 19th centuries, and the metronome mark, an absolute indication of tempo, has never superseded them since its arrival in Beethoven's day. The bulk of the shorthand devices emerged during the 17th century, figured bass early in the century, the majority of ornamental signs later. Indications for loud and soft arose early in the century, expressed as words (forte, mezzoforte, piano) and later as abbreviations (f, mf, p). Graphic signs for dynamic and attack (staccato dot, crescendo mark, for example, and also phrase marking) appeared in the 18th century. A great proliferation of dynamic instructions and signs occurred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.20th-century notationTwo developments in musical style in the 20th century have placed great strain upon staff notation: integral serialism—in which the music is controlled by a mathematical system—and indeterminacy, or chance music. In the former, every note in a texture may have its individual dynamic marking and type of attack (for example, in Olivier Messiaen's Mode de valeurs et d'intensités and in parts of Structures I and II of Pierre Boulez). There may also be extensive use of unconventional playing techniques. Since staff notation indicates volume, attack, and technical effects in a comparatively clumsy manner, the written page becomes cluttered and unclear. In indeterminate and aleatory music (the latter type allowing the performer a limited degree of freedom), the notation must offer choices to the performer or be deliberately imprecise. Staff notation is for these purposes often too specific. In addition, electronic music, composed with such devices as graphs, mathematical symbols, and diagrams, is not easily translated into a readable “ score” for publication.New systemsNotation (musical notation), in face of this, has moved in two directions: toward adaptation of staff notation and toward the devising of new notational systems. Music using microtonal intervals (accidental) (less than a semitone) has tended to adapt by modifying the standard accidental signs—meaning one-third sharp, two-thirds sharp, and so on (e.g., in Krzysztof Penderecki's Anaklasis).So-called space time notation is a further adaptation that reasserts the graphic nature of staff notation. It abandons symbolic indication of note values and replaces it by the spacing of note heads horizontally on the staff, accompanied by an instruction such as “1 inch = 1 second.” The principle may then be amplified by using different note heads (, , , etc.) to signify short, medium, and long sustaining of a note, thus obviating the use of rests, and by beaming together notes to be performed in one breath or bow (e.g., Witold Lutosławski's Trois poèmes d'Henri Michaux and John Cage's Music of Changes).IndeterminacyIndeterminate music requires constant experimentation with notation. A composer may offer directions for one element of the music—as rhythm or pitch contour—and leave the performer to improvise the remaining elements. Or he may simply describe the general character of a passage by resorting to a specially designed symbol, a verbal description, or even an impressionistic drawing (as in Earle Brown's Hodograph). At the extreme, John Cage supplies “materials” (lines, dots, shapes) and leaves the performer to attach musical significance to them. For electronic music, published scores have so far adopted either strict graph form (Karlheinz Stockhausen, Electronic Study II; see illustration) or pictorial form, using patterned drawings to represent different timbres (as in Henri Pousseur's Electre [see ] and Stockhausen's Kontakte).Adaptation to non-European musicNotations evolve with the musical styles they serve, and they reflect the underlying aesthetics of their own cultures. Thus staff notation is ill-equipped to cope with non-Western scales and tunings, with music to which the idea of the “note” (a stable, sustained pitch) is foreign, or with music whose subtlety lies as much in delicate gradations of volume or timbre as in pitch and rhythm. Ethnomusicologists have developed a range of supplementary symbols—e.g., for notes of uncertain pitch, glissandi (slides), slight lengthening of a value, half-voiced notes, and other sounds. They have also experimented with staves of fewer or more lines. The Western system of proportional note values (for example, quarter note = half of a half note) does not easily cope with fine fluctuations of value; instead, constant changes of metronome tempo mark may be necessary. Among the most complex uses of staff notation in ethnomusicology are the transcriptions of Serbo-Croatian and Romanian folk song by the Hungarian composer Béla Bartók (Bartók, Béla). Other transcribers have used graph paper to draw a curve of pitch against time. Many significant mechanical methods of transcription have been devised. The two most notable are the melograph, invented by the ethnomusicologist Charles Seeger, which traces a pitch/time graph immediately above a volume/time graph, and a device developed by Dahlbeck, which produces two similar graphs by means of a cathode-ray tube. These methods can reveal a level of interpretation by the performer that aural transcription into staff notation fails to bring out.Other systems of notationWritten notations are to be found in the musical cultures of the Far East, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West. Early examples survive from Ancient Egypt and Greece. Notation may be classified into two broad categories: phonetic symbols—words, syllables, abbreviations of these, letters, and numbers; and graphic signs—accentual signs for the rise and fall of the voice (developing into neumelike “ecphonetic” signs), curves, lines, dots, and other symbols, perhaps originally depicting hand signs, and neumes. Symbols in both categories may denote simple sounds or stand for groups of successive sounds. In the West they are read in lines from left to right, whereas in the Orient many are read from right to left or vertically, in columns.A second fundamental distinction is that between representational notations, which depict the sound of the music—leaving the player to produce that sound as he wishes—and tablatures, which instruct a player as to the technical means of producing a sound. Phonetic symbols play an important role in both types of notation, while graphic signs contribute mainly to representational notations. A prime example of non-Western representational notation is the kraton notation used in music for the Javanese gamelan orchestra, its grid using the “graph” principle found also in Western staff notation but oriented at a 90° angle relative to the latter.Verbal and syllabic notationsIn oral traditions of music, solmization (the naming of each degree of a basic scale with a word or syllable) is important. The modern European sol-fa method (“do,” “re,” “mi,” etc.) is such a system. The Indian syllables ṣa, ṛi, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni are similar, as are the Balinese ding, dong, deng, dung, dang; the ancient five-note Chinese scale kung, shang, chiao, chih, yü; and the Korean tŏng, tung, tang, tong, ting; and rŏ, ru, ra, ro, ri (the two sets being used for different instruments). Slightly different are the 12 chromatic Chinese lü; syllables: each pitch bears the name of a bell—as huang chung (“yellow bell”), ling chung (“forest bell”)—and its name is reduced to a syllable—huang, ling, t'ai, etc. Though primarily for reciting or singing as a melody is being learned, these syllables can be used to write down the notes of a melodic line (each appearing as a single ideogram in the Chinese examples) and thus form a simple syllabic pitch notation. Of the five Balinese syllables, only their vowels are used in written form—i, o, e, u, a—so that a letter notation results; this is still an abbreviated syllabic notation, not an alphabetical one.In Western plainchant, abbreviated words were used to indicate duration (for example, c = cito or celeriter = “short” value) and direction of melodic movement (l = levare, and s = sursum = “upward”). In the notation of early Ethiopian church music a single letter or a pair of letters (short for a passage of text) signified a group of notes, even a complete melodic phrase. The drum syllables of North Indian music are a solmization of timbre (as na, ta, dhin) and often also of rhythmic patterns (as tirikita, dhagina) and can be written down to make a notation.Alphabetical notationsAlphabets are historically a phenomenon of the Middle East, Europe, and the Indian subcontinent. Their ordering of letters provides a convenient reference system for the notes of musical scales in ascending or descending order. Alphabetical notations are among the most ancient musical scripts. Two Greek notations were of this type, the earlier using an archaic alphabet and the latter using the Classical Greek alphabet. Many comparable notations arose in the Middle Ages, and the modern note names, A to G, are an outgrowth of these.The clefs of staff notations are a formalized survival. The system of pitch notation devised by the 19th-century German philosopher and scientist Hermann Helmholtz was derived from the Greek system, using dashes for octave register but employing Roman letters: A, B, C–B, C–B, c–b, c′ (middle C)–b′, c″–b″, c‴–b‴, etc.Numerical notationsThe notation (musical notation) of pitches by numbers is rare. A modern Javanese system allots numbers 1–7 to the pitches of the seven-note pelog scale, and a similar five-note system exists in Bali. Modern Japanese notation for the samisen (a type of lute) uses 1–7 for the diatonic scale, 7 being the lowest note; and modern China has a similar system for publishing popular songs.An Arabic notation of the 16th century used the first seven Persian numbers to signify pitches of a seven-note scale. Numbers lend themselves more directly to expression of duration, of metre, or of the division of a basic time unit into a number of equal parts (for example, the Western triplet and its extensions in the works of Chopin ; and the Western time signatures). Arabic alphabetical notation of the 13th and 14th centuries used Arabic figures, placed beneath the pitch letters, to indicate durations of individual notes.Graphic notationsThe character of neumes and of accentual signs has been described under Western staff notation. The Vedic chant of southern India uses a form of accentual notation: a dot beneath or above a syllable of text indicates a lower or upper reciting pitch. Analogous systems, involving dots and dashes, formed a notation for ancient Jewish cantillation and early Syrian Christian chanting. A more developed form (“ecphonetic” notation (musical notation)) was used for recitation of Byzantine liturgical chants. Besides simple signs for vocal inflection, it also had more elaborate, compound signs, such ascapable of signifying degrees of loudness and changes of voice production. The Western phrase mark and crescendo and decrescendo symbols are graphic signs of this type.The dividing line between compound ecphonetic signs and neumes is slender. Neumes are concerned not with inflection of the voice between high, medium, and low but with groups of sung pitches rising and falling over a quite narrow range: a neume may represent a given pattern of intervals whether it lies high or low in the voice's compass. Neumes made up of curves, hooks, lines, and dots are found in Tibetan Buddhist chant books and in vocal notations for Japanese Buddhist chant, Nō plays, and gagaku (court music); and, in simplified form, they are used in Chinese notation in conjunction with pitch syllables.Tablatures (tablature)A tablature notates music as a series of playing positions. Hence a tablature for a plucked stringed instrument guides the player's fingers to the string he must pluck and to the fret at which the string should be stopped. Similarly, a tablature for a wind instrument guides a player's fingers to cover certain holes, and a tablature for percussion directs a player as to which drum to strike, which hand and stick to use, and what type of stroke to execute. Each single instruction in a tablature corresponds to one action by the performer. The order of his actions is automatically prescribed, and more precise rhythmic indication can be given quite easily as the length of time between successive actions—rests are unnecessary. Thus, a tablature for a plucked instrument requires signs for: each string, each fret, and possibly also each right-hand plucking finger, direction of stroke, and ancillary techniques such as harmonics, vibrato, and left-hand plucking. To indicate these, the tablature may use letters, numbers, and graphic signs. Thus 16th-century French lute tablatures indicate the strings (more properly the “courses”) graphically as parallel horizontal lines, frets as letters, and right-hand fingering by dots:Italian lute tablatures use numbers in place of letters.The tablature for the Japanese koto zither is simpler in that its 13 strings are not stopped. The pitch of each string is indicated at the beginning of a tablature, and thereafter the strings are represented by numbers combined with graphic signs for special technical effects. The tablature for the Chinese ch'in, a zither whose strings are stopped, uses a combination of numbers (for strings and for stopping points) and ideograms (for other technical details). These are grouped close together in composite symbols. One composite symbol may contain an ideogram for the left-hand finger; a number for the stopping-point; another number for the string itself; an ideogram for the right-hand finger; and possibly an ideogram indicating loudness, legato, glissando, etc. German 16th-century lute tablature achieved economy of space by indicating string and fret as a single letter (as, k = first string stopped at third fret). No grid of lines was necessary.Ian D. BentAdditional ReadingWilli Apel, The Notation of Polyphonic Music, 900–1600, 5th ed. (1961), a standard textbook, including staff notation and tablatures, and many facsimiles used as exercises for transcription; Erhard Karkoschka, Das Schriftbild der neuen Musik (1966), an excellently documented study of contemporary notation; Walter Kaufmann, Musical Notations of the Orient: Notational Systems of Continental East, South and Central Asia (1967); Carl Parrish, The Notation of Medieval Music (1957), excellent facsimiles; Emanuel Winternitz, Musical Autographs from Monteverdi to Hindemith (1955), a study of musical handwriting, with many facsimiles.
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