White Mountain, Battle of

White Mountain, Battle of
(1620) Decisive battle near Prague at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War.

The Catholic forces of Maximilian I, duke of Bavaria, commanded by count von Tilly, defeated the Protestant forces of Frederick V, king of Bohemia. By the defeat, Bohemia lost its independence, and Protestantism was exterminated until 1648.

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▪ European history
      (Nov. 8, 1620), battle fought near Prague in Bohemia. The battle marked the first major victory of the Roman Catholic Habsburgs (Habsburg, House of) over the Protestant Union, a military alliance among the Protestant states of Germany, in the Thirty Years' War (1618–48). The victory enabled the house of Habsburg to end constitutional rule in Bohemia and its neighbours and to establish an authoritarian government that survived for three centuries, until the reconstruction of central Europe following World War I.

      The army raised by the Bohemian rebels and their allies after 1618 achieved initial success, especially after Frederick V, elector Palatine of the Rhine, accepted their offer of the Bohemian crown. In 1620, however, the combined forces of the German Catholic League and of the Holy Roman emperor and king of Bohemia Ferdinand II, under Johann Tserclaes, count von Tilly (Tilly, Johann Tserclaes, Graf von), gradually drove them back toward Prague. Christian of Anhalt, Frederick's principal adviser and one of his military commanders, decided to make a stand on White Mountain (Bílá hora), a low plateau 8 miles (13 km) west of Prague, hoping that his opponents would not dare to attack in winter. He miscalculated: in just one hour Tilly's forces, which included many notable Catholics (such as the future philosopher René Descartes (Descartes, René)), routed Christian's men. Prague fell at once, soon followed by the rest of the areas in revolt.

      An English envoy in Bohemia immediately grasped the significance of the brief encounter. “The loss of soldiers was not much unequal,” he wrote, “but the loss of cannon, the baggage, reputation, is the Imperialists victory who, as it seems, hold Bohemia now by conquest.” Ferdinand at once had the rebel leaders tried and executed, confiscated the lands of all their supporters, expelled all Protestants, and abolished the constitution. In 1627 he issued a “new constitution,” which created an authoritarian government that lasted until 1918, when Czechoslovakia was formed out of Bohemia and adjoining regions. He imposed similar measures on Bohemia's allies in the rebellion against him: Austria, Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia.

      Catholics all over Europe celebrated the victory. In Rome, Pope Paul V died while leading a victory parade, and his successor, Gregory XV, gave a new basilica by Italian architect Carlo Maderno (Maderno, Carlo) the name Santa Maria della Vittoria (Saint Mary of Victory) in honour of the battle. Gregory also canonized Teresa of Ávila (Teresa of Ávila, Saint), whom participants claimed had appeared just before the battle in order to encourage the victorious troops. In Prague, Ferdinand laid the foundations of the monastery that still stands on the battleground, and he erected a victory column in the heart of the city, which Czech patriots saw as a symbol of Habsburg tyranny and tore down after 1918.

N. Geoffrey Parker
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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