- Volga River
River, western Russia.Europe's longest river and the principal waterway of western Russia, it rises in the Valdai Hills northwest of Moscow and flows 2,193 mi (3,530 km) southeastward to empty into the Caspian Sea. It is used for power production, irrigation, flood control, and transportation. The river has played an important part in the life of the Russian people, and in Russian folklore it is characteristically named "Mother Volga."
* * *Introductionriver of Europe, the continent's longest, and the principal waterway of western Russia and the historic cradle of the Russian state. Its basin, sprawling across about two-fifths of the European part of Russia, contains almost half of the entire population of the Russian Republic. The Volga's immense economic, cultural, and historic importance—along with the sheer size of the river and its basin—ranks it among the world's great rivers.Rising in the Valdai Hills northwest of Moscow, the Volga discharges into the Caspian Sea, some 2,193 miles (3,530 kilometres) to the south. It drops slowly and majestically from its source 748 feet (228 metres) above sea level to its mouth 92 feet below sea level. In the process the Volga receives the water of some 200 tributaries, the majority of which join the river on its left bank. Its river system, comprising 151,000 rivers and permanent and intermittent streams, has a total length of about 357,000 miles.Physical featuresThe river basin drains some 533,000 square miles (1,380,000 square kilometres), stretching from the Valdai Hills and Central Russian Upland in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east and narrowing sharply at Saratov in the south. From Kamyshin the river flows to its mouth uninterrupted by tributaries for some 400 miles. Four geographic zones lie within the Volga basin: the dense, marshy forest, which extends from the river's upper reaches to Nizhny Novgorod (formerly Gorky) and Kazan; the forest steppe extending from there to Samara (formerly Kuybyshev) and Saratov; the steppe from there to Volgograd; and semidesert lowlands southeast to the Caspian Sea.PhysiographyThe course of the Volga is divided into three parts: the upper Volga (from its source to the confluence of the Oka (Oka River)), the middle Volga (from the confluence of the Oka to that of the Kama (Kama River)), and the lower Volga (from the confluence of the Kama to the mouth of the Volga itself). The Volga is a small stream in its upper course through the Valdai Hills, becoming a true river only after the entrance of several of its tributaries. It then passes through a chain of small lakes, receives the waters of the Selizharovka River, and then flows southeast through a terraced trench. Past the town of Rzhev, the Volga turns northeastward, is swelled by the inflow of the Vazuza and Tvertsa rivers at Tver (formerly Kalinin), and then continues to flow northeastward through the Rybinsk Reservoir, into which other rivers, such as the Mologa and the Sheksna, flow. From the reservoir the river proceeds southeastward through a narrow, tree-lined valley between the Uglich Highlands to the south and the Danilov Upland and the Galich-Chukhlom Lowland to the north, continuing its course along the Unzha and the Balakhna lowlands to Nizhny Novgorod. (Within this stretch the Kostroma, Unzha, and Oka rivers enter the Volga.) On its east-southeastward course from the confluence of the Oka to Kazan, the Volga doubles in size, receiving waters from the Sura and Sviyaga on its right bank and the Kerzhenets and Vetluga on its left. At Kazan the river turns south into the reservoir at Samara, where it is joined from the left by its major tributary, the Kama. From this point the Volga becomes a mighty river, which, save for a sharp loop at the Samara Bend, flows southwestward along the foot of the Volga Hills in the direction of Volgograd. (Between the Samara Bend and Volgograd it receives only the relatively small left-bank tributaries of the Samara, Bolshoy Irgiz, and Yeruslan.) Above Volgograd the Volga's main distributary, the Akhtuba, branches southeastward to the Caspian Sea, running parallel to the main course of the river, which also turns southeast. A floodplain, characterized by numerous interconnecting channels and old cutoff courses and loops, lies between the Volga and the Akhtuba. Above Astrakhan a second distributary, the Buzan, marks the beginning of the Volga delta, which, with an area of more than 7,330 square miles, is the largest in Russia. Other main branches of the Volga delta are the Bakhtemir, Kamyzyak, Staraya (Old) Volga, and Bolda.HydrologyThe Volga is fed by snow (which accounts for 60 percent of its annual discharge), underground water (30 percent), and rainwater (10 percent). The natural, untamed regime of the river was characterized by high spring floods (polovodye). Before it was regulated by reservoirs, annual fluctuations in level ranged from 23 to 36 feet on the upper Volga, from 39 to 46 feet on the middle Volga, and from 10 to 49 feet on the lower Volga. At Tver the average annual rate of river flow is about 6,400 cubic feet (180 cubic metres) per second, at Yaroslavl 39,000 cubic feet per second, at Samara 272,500 cubic feet per second, and at the river's mouth 284,500 cubic feet per second. Below Volgograd the river loses about 2 percent of its waters in evaporation. More than 90 percent of annual runoff occurs above the confluence of the Kama.ClimateThe climate of the Volga basin changes significantly from north to south. From its source to the Kama confluence, it lies within a temperate climatic zone characterized by a cold, snowy winter and a warm, rather humid summer. From the Kama to below the Volga Hills, hot, dry summers and cold winters with little snow prevail. Toward the south and east, temperatures increase and precipitation decreases. The average temperatures in the river's upper reaches range from 19° F (−7° C) to 6° F (-14° C) and those of July from 62° F (17° C) to 68° F (20° C), while on its lower reaches at Astrakhan corresponding temperatures are 19° F (−7° C) and 77° F (25° C). Annual rainfall ranges from 25 inches (635 millimetres) on the northwest to 12 inches on the southeast. Evaporation of precipitation ranges from 20 inches in the northwest to eight inches in the southeast. The upper and middle courses of the Volga begin to freeze at the end of November, the lower reaches in December. The ice breaks up at Astrakhan in mid-March, at Kamyshin at the beginning of April, and everywhere else in mid-April. The Volga is generally free of ice for about 200 days each year and for about 260 days near Astrakhan. As great masses of water accumulated within the reservoirs constructed during the Soviet period, however, the temperature regime of the Volga was so changed that the duration of ice increased on the headwaters of the reservoirs and decreased on the stretches below the dams.The economyDams and reservoirsA string of huge dams and reservoirs now line the Volga and its major tributary, the Kama River, converting them from free-flowing rivers to chains of man-made lakes. All the reservoir complexes include hydroelectric power stations and navigation locks. The uppermost complex on the Volga, the Ivankovo , with a reservoir covering 126 square miles, was completed in 1937, and the next complex, at Uglich (96 square miles), was put into operation in 1939. The Rybinsk Reservoir, completed in 1941 and encompassing an area of about 1,750 square miles, was the first of the large reservoir projects. Following World War II, work continued below Rybinsk. The reservoirs at Nizhny Novgorod and Samara were both completed in 1957, and the Cheboksary Reservoir, located between them, became operational in 1980. The huge reservoir at Samara, with an area of some 2,300 square miles, is the largest of the Volga reservoir system; it not only impounds the waters of the Volga but also backs water up the Kama for some 375 miles. The Saratov and Volgograd reservoirs (completed in 1968 and 1962, respectively) are the last such bodies on the Volga itself. The chain on the Kama consists of three reservoirs, the newest of which—the Lower Kama Reservoir—became operational in 1979. There are a total of eight hydroelectric stations on the Volga and three on the Kama, which combined have an installed generating capacity of some 11 million kilowatts of power.NavigationThe Volga, navigable for some 2,000 miles, and its more than 70 navigable tributaries carry more than half of all Soviet inland freight and nearly half of all the passengers who use Soviet inland waterways. Construction materials and raw materials account for about 80 percent of the total freight; other cargoes include petroleum and petroleum products, coal, foodstuffs, salt, tractors and agricultural machinery, automobiles, chemical apparatus, and fertilizers. The major ports on the Volga are Tver, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk (formerly Simbirsk), Samara, Saratov, Kamyshin, Volgograd, and Astrakhan.The Volga is joined to the Baltic Sea by the Volga–Baltic Waterway, which, in turn, is joined to the White Sea (White Sea–Baltic Canal) (via Lake Onega) by the White Sea–Baltic Canal; to the Moscow River, and hence to Moscow, by the Moscow Canal; (Moscow Canal) and to the Sea of Azov by the Volga–Don Ship Canal. The river has thus become integrated with virtually the entire waterway system of eastern Europe.Environmental changesAlthough the extensive development of the Volga has made a major contribution to the Soviet economy, it also has had adverse ecological consequences. The system of dams and reservoirs has blocked or severely curtailed access for such anadromous species as the beluga sturgeon (famous for the caviar made from its roe) and whitefish (belorybitsa), which live in the Caspian Sea but spawn in the Volga and other inflowing rivers, and it has fundamentally altered the habitat of the nearly 70 species of fish native to the river. These changes—along with pollution by industrial and municipal effluents and by agricultural runoff—have led to deterioration of the major Volga fisheries. Water loss by impoundment and evaporation and by diversion (chiefly for irrigation) have diminished discharge at the mouth of the Volga compared with natural conditions, and this has contributed to an almost steady decline in the level of the Caspian Sea since 1930. Intensive efforts to alleviate these man-made influences, however, have been under way for a number of years. For example, some three-fifths of the Caspian sturgeon are now bred artificially rather than in their natural spawning grounds.Study and explorationThe Volga was known to the Alexandrian geographer Ptolemy (2nd century AD), to the Slavs, and to the Arab geographers of the 10th and 11th centuries. Information on it is contained in the Kniga bolshomu chertyozhu (1627; “Book of the Great Chart”) and in a hydrographic description of 1636. Its flow was first measured below Kamyshin by the Englishman John Perry in 1700. Two pioneer Russian navigators, Makeyev and Gavril Andreyevich Sarychev, surveyed the stretch between Tver and Nizhny Novgorod in 1782–83; in 1809–17 and 1829 the Maritime Bureau surveyed the delta and measured its depth; and from 1875 to 1894 the river was investigated from the Rybinsk to the Volga mouth. Investigations of the upper Volga were made from 1896 to 1901, and in 1894 the upper reaches of the Volga, Oka, Syzran, and other rivers were also examined. Many institutes carried out hydrographic and hydrometric research during and after the Soviet period; and more than 500 points have been established to monitor the water levels of the Volga.Pavel Sergeyevich Kuzin Philip P. MicklinAdditional ReadingThe Dnieper, Don, and Volga rivers are often treated together because of their physical and economic interaction. Survey information is found in such general sources as National Geographic Society, Great Rivers of the World (1984); Michael T. Florinsky (ed.), McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union (1961); S.V. Kalesnik and V.F. Pavlenko (eds.), Soviet Union: A Geographical Survey (1976; originally published in Russian, 1972); and, in Russian, M.I. L'Vovich, Reki SSSR (1971). The following study the influence of civilization and human interference on riverine biology, ecology, and river flow: I.A. Shiklomanov, Antropogennye izmeneniia vodnosti rek (1979); S.L. Vendrov, Problemy preobrazovaniia rechnykh sistem SSSR, 2nd rev. ed. (1979); A.B. Avakian and V.A. Sharapov, Vodokhranilishcha gidroelektrostantsiĭ SSSR (1962), focusing on water reservoirs and hydroelectric power plants; and on the Volga specifically, F.D. Mordukhai-Boltovskoi (ed.), The River Volga and Its Life (1979; originally published in Russian, 1978), on the flora and fauna and their changes; Philip P. Micklin, “Environmental Costs of the Volga–Kama Cascade of Power Stations,” Water Resources Bulletin, 10(3):565–572 (1974), and “International Environmental Implications of Soviet Development of the Volga River,” Human Ecology, 5(2):113–135 (June 1977); and S.L. Vendrov and A.B. Avakyan, “The Volga River,” in Gilbert F. White (ed.), Environmental Effects of Complex River Development (1977), pp. 23–38.There are a number of writings describing travels along the Volga that provide political and social insights: Marvin Kalb, The Volga: A Political Journey Through Russia (1967), which originated as a television documentary; Howard Sochurek, “The Volga, Russia's Mighty River Road,” National Geographic, 143(5):579–613 (May 1973), reporting a trip by an experienced journalist; and Daniel R. Snyder, “Notes of a Visit to the Middle Volga,” Soviet Geography, 21(3):180–183 (1980), describing a cruise on the Volga and Don and visits to the major cities of the area.The many relevant historical works include Robert Paul Jordan, “Viking Trail East,” National Geographic, 167(3):278–317 (March 1985), which explores the role of the Volga and Dnieper in the founding of the early Russian state; Elvajean Hall, The Volga: Lifeline of Russia (1965), a concise historical work; William T. Ellis, “Voyaging on the Volga amid War and Revolution: War-Time Sketches on Russia's Great Waterway,” National Geographic, 33(3):245–265 (March 1918), which focuses on the events of the first two decades of the 20th century; Maynard Owen Williams, “Mother Volga Defends Her Own,” National Geographic, 82(6):793–811 (December 1942), which explores life along the Volga in the period before World War II; and Boris Shirokov (compiler), The Undying Tradition: Folk Handicrafts in the Mid-Volga Region, trans. from Russian (1988), which explores the cultural tradition influenced by the great Russian rivers.Philip P. Micklin
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