- Vistula River
River, Poland.It rises on the northern slope of the Carpathian Mountains in southwestern Poland, flows in a curve through Warsaw and Torun, then empties into the Baltic Sea at Gdańsk. Most of its 651 mi (1,047 km) are navigable. Poland's largest river, its tributaries include the Bug and Dunajec rivers.
* * *Introductionlargest river of Poland and of the drainage basin of the Baltic Sea. With a length of 651 miles (1,047 kilometres) and a drainage basin of some 75,100 square miles (194,500 square kilometres), it is a waterway of great importance to the nations of eastern Europe; more than 85 percent of the river's drainage basin, however, lies in Polish territory. The Vistula is connected with the Oder drainage area by the Bydgoszcz Canal. Eastward the Narew and Bug rivers and the Dnieper–Bug Canal link it with the vast inland waterway systems of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia.The source of the Vistula is found about 15 miles south of Bielsko-Biała on the northern slopes of the western Beskid (Beskid Mountains) range, in southern Poland, at an altitude of 3,629 feet (1,106 metres). It flows generally from south to north through the mountains and foothills of southern Poland and across the lowland areas of the great North European Plain, ending in a delta estuary that enters the Baltic Sea near the port of Gdańsk. The average elevation of the Vistula basin is 590 feet above sea level; the mean river gradient is 0.10 percent, and the mean velocity in the river channel amounts to 2.6 feet per second. In addition to Poland's capital city, Warsaw, a number of large towns and industrial centres lie on the banks of the Vistula. These include Kraków, which was Poland's capital from the 11th century to the close of the 16th, Nowa Huta, Sandomierz, Płock, Toruń, Malbork, and Gdańsk. Numerous centres of tourism and recreation as well as many health resorts flank the Vistula valley. Here and there along the river rise the ruins of medieval strongholds, some of which have been restored.Physical featuresGeologyThe present spatial pattern of the Vistula's tributary system and delta is the result of the changes in relief that occurred during the second half of the Tertiary and the Quaternary periods—i.e., since about 30 million years ago. In the mountains the Vistula valley assumed its present shape much earlier and still reveals the way in which it has adapted itself to the geologic structure; in the lowland, on the other hand, the valley evolution was contingent on the history of the successive glaciations and, in particular, on changes during the interglacial period in which the Vistula abandoned its previous west–east valley and established its present northward course. The terminal part of the lower Vistula was finally stabilized in postglacial times, after the formation of the Baltic Sea.A characteristic feature of the Vistula drainage basin is its asymmetry, with a predominance of right-bank over left-bank tributaries. This is the result of the general slant of the North European Plain in a northwesterly direction, which enabled the more powerful rivers of the Baltic drainage area to intercept the glacial streams flowing farther east.PhysiographyThe course of the Vistula consists of three principal sections delineated by the San and Narew rivers (Narew River), the two most prominent tributaries. The upper reach extends from the source to where the San joins its parent river near Sandomierz; its length is about 240 miles. The middle reach, from the mouth of the San to that of the Narew, below Warsaw, is about 170 miles long. Finally, the lower reach, extending to the Baltic, covers 240 miles from the mouth of the Narew to the mouth of the estuary into the Gulf of Gdańsk.In its upper course the Vistula is a mountain stream with a steep gradient of up to 5 percent. Its main sources are the Czarna Wisełka and the Biała Wisełka, two brooks that meet to form the Mała Wisła (“Small Vistula”), which then flows northward. Some 25 miles farther on, the river gradient decreases suddenly to some 0.04 percent; from there, after turning eastward, the Vistula enters Lake Goczałkowice, an artificial storage basin built in 1955. Upon exiting the lake, the Vistula assumes the character of a lowland stream, with its gradient decreasing to 0.03–0.02 percent in the middle reaches and to 0.02–0.002 percent in its final stages. At a distance of 65 miles from the source, the Vistula is joined by the Przemsza River, a left-bank tributary, after which—for 585 miles—it is navigable. After the Soła and Skawa—two right-bank tributaries—join the river, the Vistula forces its way through a gap carved through a range of hills just before the city of Kraków. Channel improvements to this section have deprived the Vistula of much of its original character: several spillway steps have been constructed, creating a channel navigable by 300-ton barges. After passing through Kraków the Vistula turns to the east and, later, northeastward, crossing the wide Sandomierz Basin, where the valley is entered successively by the left-bank tributaries Szreniawa, Nida, Czarna, and Koprzywianka and from the right by the rivers Raba, Dunajec, Wisłoka, and San.The inflow of the San River marks the beginning of the middle reaches of the Vistula, which then turns northward, breaching another gap through an upland area. In the course of its middle reaches the Vistula absorbs, from the left, the Radomka and Pilica and, from the right, the rivers Wieprz, Wilga, Świder, and Narew. Below the confluence with the Narew, where the lower reach of the river starts, the Vistula turns first to the west and then, after receiving the Bzura, a left-bank tributary, in a northwesterly direction; meanwhile from the right, the Skrwa and Drwęca join the river. In part of the valley, from the mouth of the Wieprz River to Toruń, the natural, untamed character of the Vistula predominates.There the river runs in a channel 2,000 to 4,000 feet wide, practically devoid of controlling structures; in parts the valley reaches widths up to six to nine miles, with the banks often 200 to 330 feet high. The low gradient of the river channel and abundant sandbanks render navigation difficult; in spring, when the ice cover breaks up and floats downstream, dangerous ice dams may form, causing the flooding of surrounding areas and often destroying embankments and bridges. A spillway step constructed at Włoclawek in 1968 initiated a series of improvements that continued through the 1980s.From Toruń to its entry into the Baltic, the Vistula has been turned into a fully improved waterway. The 19th-century Bydgoszcz Canal, following an ancient glacial valley, links the Vistula with the Oder, the second largest of Polish rivers. Also near Bydgoszcz the Vistula, having received a left-bank tributary in the Brda, turns northeastward in its third gap section, cut through the Pomeranian highlands. Above Grudziądz the river finally turns northward to approach the Baltic. After receiving three further tributaries—the Osa from the right and the Wda and the Wierzyca from the left—the Vistula enters Żuławy Wiślane, its delta area, renowned for its splendidly fertile soils. Żuławy is a forestless plain, partly below sea level, threaded by the Vistula and its branches, together with a great number of canals and drainage ditches. Some of the local embankments and dikes date to the 13th century. During World War II a great part of Żuławy was flooded, but improvements were made in the postwar years.In the past the Vistula crossed its delta and entered the sea by two or more branch channels, notably the Nogat, which issued into the Vistula Lagoon, and the Leniwka (now called the Martw Vistula), which followed the true Vistula channel to the Gulf of Gdańsk. Improvements, the ultimate aim of which was to control the Vistula's outlet to the sea and make the entire delta region economically productive, were initiated at the end of the 19th century: first, a cut toward the open sea was excavated near Świbno to facilitate floodwater runoff and the removal of debris and ice carried by the river; later, all lateral watercourses were separated by locks, rendering them navigable, with controlled flows; the Świbno cut was extended into the open sea by lengthening the controlling embankments. This last change was intended to prevent the accumulation at the river mouth of the more than two million tons of sediment carried down annually by the Vistula.HydrologyClimatic variations in the Vistula basin cause a diversity in runoff and hence marked oscillations in the water level of the river, which averages 12 feet in the upper, 25 feet in the middle, and up to 33 feet in the lower reaches. Protracted low-water periods, lasting from late summer well into spring, are frequent. These hamper or entirely interrupt navigation. Spring floods caused by melting snow and ice in the whole drainage basin and summer floods resulting from heavy rains in the foothill and mountain regions are common features. During the period 1951–80 the mean flow of the upper course of the Vistula averaged about 2,200 cubic feet (62 cubic metres) per second, with extremes of 410 and 52,620 feet per second; the average for the middle course was about 20,900 feet per second, with extremes of 3,810 and 199,530; and the average for the lower course was 38,500 feet per second, with extremes of 8,940 and 276,870. Exceptionally heavy floods occurred in 1924, 1934, 1947, 1960, 1962, and 1970. There are a number of storage reservoirs in the valleys of the mountain tributaries that are intended to counteract excessive floods. Some newer, larger storage basins have been built.Usually ice forms on the surface of the Vistula in the first half of January, breaking up toward the end of February. In the upper and lower reaches the duration of the ice sheet is from 20 to 40 days, in the middle reach 40 to 60 days, and in the estuary section up to 20 days.The quality of the Vistula's waters is affected by water-management structures such as dams and hydroelectric plants, by the discharge of municipal and industrial wastewater, and by agricultural and storm runoff. Although the upper reaches of the river remain relatively pure, the lower portions of the Vistula, in common with similar stretches of many of the great rivers of the world, exhibit a high degree of pollution.The mean annual temperature of the Vistula water is 46° F (8° C) in the upper reaches and 49° F (9° C) in the middle and lower reaches; in the middle and lower parts of the river the water is some 4° F (2° C) warmer than the mean annual air temperature of Poland. In winter the water temperature is 36° to 37° F (2° to 3° C); in summer it varies from 54° to 59° F (12° to 15° C). In river sections that are thermally affected by nearby industries, however, as in the regions of Kraków, Warsaw, and Włocławek, the water temperature is apt to be as much as 11° to 18° F (6° to 10° C) or even higher.Plant and animal lifeHigher-growth aquatic plant species most often encountered in the Vistula valley are, among plants submerged in the water, arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia, variety vallisinfolia); among plants with floating leaves, the water lily (Nuphar luteum); and, among air-growing plants, sweet flag (Acorus calamus).More than 40 kinds of fish exist in the Vistula. In the upper reach, turbot is the most common, with bream in the middle and lower reaches, and, in the waters of the estuary, salmon trout and vimba vimba. Species penetrating the river from the Baltic are found only sporadically.The economyThe Vistula is connected with the Oder River by the Brda River, the Bydgoszcz Canal, and the Notec and Warta rivers; and in 1960 the Soviet Union, East Germany, and Poland agreed to establish permanent shipping lines along this route. In 1963 a canal was opened to avoid the natural hazards at the confluence of the Vistula and the Narew, improving the links between the Vistula and the waterways system to the east.Despite the Vistula's potential role as a transport link between the heavy industrial centres of southern Poland and the Baltic ports, navigational hazards have restricted its traffic. Nevertheless, attracted by water supply and by the possibilities of cheap transport rates for bulk materials, a number of large industrial projects have sprung up along the Vistula.HistoryThe Vistula played a prominent part in the ancient history of Poland. Since early Stone Age times the river served both as a trade route and as a means of expansion, from both north and south, for various peoples and cultures. Initially, raw materials and flint tools journeyed northward, while amber was sent to the south. By the time of the Roman Empire, the Vistula was one of the principal trade routes leading into central Europe; and from this period date the first historical references—by the classical geographers Pliny, Tacitus, and Ptolemy—to the Vistula and the Slav tribes living along its banks. Much later, in the early period of the Polish state (10th–13th century), the most important goods shipped over the Vistula route were salt, timber, grain, and building stone. The most intensive development of the Vistula as a trade route came from the 15th to 18th century, during which period a variety of hydraulic structures were put up, as well as embankments to provide flood protection. Many granaries and storehouses, built in the 14th century, line the banks of the Vistula. At the end of the 18th century, the partition of Poland between Prussia, Austria, and Russia put an end to the economic importance of the Vistula. Minor navigation improvements were undertaken only locally, in Prussia and in Austria. The major 19th-century improvements in the region of the delta and the construction of the Bydgoszcz Canal have been mentioned above. From 1920 to 1939 very little was done to improve the river channel. It was only after World War II that concerted efforts were undertaken to restore the Vistula to its historic function as a navigable waterway. This was done by the construction of a number of storage reservoirs and spillway dams in the river and its tributaries: the purpose was to take advantage of the river's hydroelectric potential and, at the same time, to adapt the channel to the travel of freight barges of 600- to 1,000-ton capacity.A number of institutions are concerned with research on the Vistula and with keeping the waterway in operation. The highest authority coordinating activities in the field of research and deciding on technical expenditures and on navigational improvements is the Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources. In addition, hydrologic measurements and investigations as well as engineering studies are carried out by the Institute for Meteorology and Water Management.Władysław Parczewski Jerzy PruchnickiAdditional ReadingMaterials in English on the Vistula River are scarce. The only substantial works providing comprehensive coverage of the Vistula, along with the Oder, are in Polish and include Juliusz Stachý (ed.), Atlas Hydrologiczny Polski, 2 vol. (1987), containing maps and tables; and Zdzisław Mikulski, Zarys hydrografii Polski (1965), which, though dated, is still considered the fundamental professional study. Surveys of the Vistula itself include Andrzej Piskozub (ed.), Wisła, monografia rzeki (1982); and Aleksander Tuszko, Wisła przyszłości (1977). Leszek Starkel (ed.), Evolution of the Vistula River Valley During the Last 15,000 Years, trans. from Polish, 2 vol. (1982–87), explores the geomorphology of the area. Jan Styczýnski, Vistula: The Story of a River (1973; originally published in Polish, 1973), is a descriptive pictorial work. Jan Czarnecki, The Goths in Ancient Poland: A Study on the Historical Geography of the Oder–Vistula Region During the First Two Centuries of Our Era (1975), is a concise examination of events in relation to the geographic setting.Jerzy Pruchnicki
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