North American Indians of east-central Mexico.

Some live on cool, rainy high mesas, others in the hot, humid lowlands. Both groups are farmers, but the highlanders sometimes engage in peddling and wage labour as well and often work on lowland farms in the off-season. Most farm their own land and also perform required labour on land collectively owned by the village. They profess Roman Catholicism but have adapted it to their traditional beliefs.

* * *

      Middle American Indian population of east-central Mexico. Totonac culture is in many ways similar to other Middle American cultures, but it possesses certain features not seen elsewhere in Middle America and more likely related to the circum-Caribbean cultures. The Totonac inhabit two types of environment—high mesa, cool and rainy, and coastal lowland, hot and usually humid—and there are corresponding differences in cultural patterns.

      Both groups are agriculturists, growing corn (maize) and squash as staple crops. Lowland Totonac also keep bees, poultry, and hogs and raise a variety of cash crops. Highland Totonac keep poultry and raise some livestock; to augment their rather meagre farm production, they also engage in peddling and wage labour in the off-season.

      Lowland Totonac live primarily in scattered farmhouses, while the highlanders live in central villages with their farmlands around them. The Totonac generally purchase their tools from commercial outlets, and only a little weaving and pottery making is still practiced by the women.

      Highland Totonac wear basically traditional homemade clothing—white cotton shirts and pants for men, black wool skirts and cotton overblouses for women. Lowland men wear similar clothing or commercially produced garments, and women wear cotton skirts and blouses or cotton housedresses.

      While each family generally farms its own land or follows a trade, highland men frequently go to the lowlands as seasonal wage labourers on the lowland farms. Communal labour on collectively owned village land is required in both the highlands and the lowlands.

      A system of ritual kinship is practiced by the Totonac; this institution is related to the compadrazgo, or institution of godparenthood, commonly seen in Middle America, but among the Totonac the kinship ties are felt to be primarily between the adults involved, rather than between adult and child. The Totonac are nominally Roman Catholic but have adapted Christianity to their traditional beliefs, and many pagan ceremonies and rituals are still practiced.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Totonac — The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. Today they reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo. They are one of the possible builders of the Pre… …   Wikipedia

  • Totonac-Tepehua — (auch Totonacan) ist eine indigene amerikanische Sprachfamilie in Zentralmexiko, die aus zwei Zweigen besteht. Die beiden Zweige werden alternativ auch als zwei Einzelsprachen aufgefasst, doch da die verschiedenen Dialekte gegenseitig nicht immer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Totonac Indians — • One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish conquest the coast province of Totonicapan Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Totonac Indians     Totonac Indians …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • totonac — to·to·nac …   English syllables

  • totonac — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Misantla Totonac — Spoken in Mexico Region Veracruz Native speakers approx. <500 Language family Totozoque ? …   Wikipedia

  • Highland Totonac — Infobox Language name = Highland Totonac nativename = pronunciation = states = Mexico (Puebla, Veracruz) region = speakers = 120,000 (1982 SIL) script = Latin alphabet rank = familycolor = American fam2 = Totonacan fam3 = Totonac nation = None… …   Wikipedia

  • Coyutla Totonac — ISO 639 3 Code : toc ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

  • Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán Totonac — ISO 639 3 Code : tlp ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

  • Highland Totonac — ISO 639 3 Code : tos ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”