Toghrïl Beg

Toghrïl Beg
born с 990
died Sept. 4, 1063, Rayy, Iran

Founder of the Seljūq dynasty.

He and his brother Chagrï took refuge in Khwārezm in Central Asia after being defeated by Mahmūd of Ghazna. Later they entered Khorāsān (northeastern Iran), where they gradually built a power base, returning to defeat Maḥmūd's son (1040). Chagrï took over Khorāsān, and Toghrïl prepared to conquer the rest of Iran. In the 1040s he extended his authority to Rayy, Hamadān, and Eṣfahān, and in 1055 he entered Baghdad, where he had been commissioned by the caliph of the Abbāsid dynasty to overthrow the Shīʽite Fātimid dynasty. In 1060 Toghrïl crushed a rebellion in Baghdad.

* * *

▪ Muslim ruler
Toghrïl also spelled  Ṭughril  
born c. 990
died Sept. 4, 1063, Rayy, Iran

      founder of the Seljuq dynasty, which ruled in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia during the 11th– 14th centuries. Under his rule the Seljuqs assumed the leadership of the Islāmic world by establishing political mastery over the ʿAbbāsid caliphate in Baghdad.

      The grandson of Seljuq, chief of the Oğuz tribes in the Jand region, Toghrïl, with his brother Chaghrï, entered Muslim Transoxania shortly before 1016, and in 1025 they and their uncle Arslan entered the service of the Turkish Qarakhanid prince of Bukhara. Defeated by Maḥmūd of Ghazna in the same year, Toghrïl and Chaghrï took refuge in Khwārezm (around the estuary of the Amu Darya [river], southeast of the Aral Sea), while Arslan settled in Khorāsān. Later, however, after their kinsmen in Khorāsān had been driven by Maḥmūd to western Iran, the two brothers themselves entered Khorāsān, where, having established close ties with the orthodox Muslim groups in the large towns, they subdued Merv and Nīshāpūr (1028–29). Finally, in 1040 at Dandānqān, the Seljuqs inflicted a decisive defeat on Maḥmūd's son Masʿūd. Khorāsān was then formed into a principality for Chaghrï, while Toghrïl was left free to conquer the Iranian plateau.

      A methodical ruler, Toghrïl succeeded in building an empire by careful planning. The first conquests were generally made by the Turkmen raiders led by his foster brother Ibrāhīm Ināl. He himself then followed to administer the conquered territories. In this way, between 1040 and 1044, he occupied the Caspian areas of Khorāsān, Rayy, and Hamadan and established his suzerainty over Isfahan. In 1049 and 1054 he sent expeditions of Turkmens into the Byzantine lands of Anatolia, attempting to prevent Turkmen raids into the surrounding Muslim territories while at the same time increasing Seljuq power against the Byzantine Empire.

      In 1055 Toghrïl, after conquering the principalities to the east and north of Iraq, entered Baghdad, where he was commissioned to overthrow the Shīʿī Fāṭimid caliphs of Cairo in Egypt and to restore, under the ʿAbbāsid caliph, the religious and political unity of the Islāmic world. A mounting threat from the Shīʿī and discontent among his supporters over administration and reward for services, however, resulted in a general uprising against Toghrïl. Prince Ināl with his Turkmens revolted in Mesopotamia and Iran, while a coalition of Arab and Shīʿī Būyid forces, financed and controlled by the Fāṭimids of Cairo and led by Basāsīrī, entered Baghdad (1058). The ʿAbbāsid caliph was imprisoned, and prayers were recited in the name of the Fāṭimid caliph of Cairo. Toghrïl then crushed the rebellion (1060), regained Baghdad, and pacified the Arabs of Mesopotamia. During his last years he fought the petty princes in northwest Iran and forced the Caliph to give him a daughter in marriage.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tughrul Beg (Iran) — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Toghrul-beg — Tour de Tuğrul Bey à Ray au sud de Téhéran (XIIe) Tuğrul Bey[1] « Le Prince Epervier …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Toghrul-Beg — Tour de Tuğrul Bey à Ray au sud de Téhéran (XIIe) Tuğrul Bey[1] « Le Prince Epervier », prince turc saljûqide, petit fils de Seldjouk (Saldjük) (993 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tugrïl Beg — La Torre de Tugrïl, un monumento del siglo XII ubicado al sur de Teherán en su honor. Toğrul (Tuğril, Tuğrul o Toghrïl Beg; c. 990–4 de septiembre de 1063) fue el segundo gobernante de la Dinastía selyúcida. Tuğrul unió a los guerreros turcomanos …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tughrul Beg — Das Grabmal Der Toghrul Turm in Ray Tughrul Beg (* um 990; † 4. September 1063 in Ray) war der erste Sultan der Seldschuken Dynastie. Er war der Enkel von Saldschūq bin Duqāq, des Namensgebers und Stammesfürsten der damals führenden Familie der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Liste der Seldschuken-Fürsten — Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Die Großseldschuken (1038–1194) 2 Die Kirman Seldschuken (1048 bis ca. 1188) 3 Die seldschukischen Machthaber von Syrien (1078–1117) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Iraq — /i rak , i rahk /, n. a republic in SW Asia, N of Saudi Arabia and W of Iran, centering in the Tigris Euphrates basin of Mesopotamia. 22,219,289; 172,000 sq. mi. (445,480 sq. km). Cap.: Baghdad. Also, Irak. * * * Iraq Introduction Iraq Background …   Universalium

  • Iran — /i ran , i rahn , uy ran /, n. a republic in SW Asia. 67,540,002; ab. 635,000 sq. mi. (1,644,650 sq. km). Cap.: Teheran. Formerly (until 1935), Persia. * * * Iran Introduction Iran Background: Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic… …   Universalium

  • Masud de Ghazni — Masûd de Ghaznî Masûd de Ghaznî, Mas ûd Ghaznavi Ier (en arabe : مسعود غزنويّ الأوّل), ou Mas ûd Ibn Mahmûd (en arabe : مسعود بن محمود), surnommé Shihâb ul Daula (en arabe : شهاب الدّولة, étoile de l état), fut le troisième sultan… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Masûd De Ghaznî — Masûd de Ghaznî, Mas ûd Ghaznavi Ier (en arabe : مسعود غزنويّ الأوّل), ou Mas ûd Ibn Mahmûd (en arabe : مسعود بن محمود), surnommé Shihâb ul Daula (en arabe : شهاب الدّولة, étoile de l état), fut le troisième sultan de l empire… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”