Titan rocket

Titan rocket
Any of a series of U.S. liquid-fueled rockets originally developed as intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) but also used as space launch vehicles.

Titan I missiles (used 1962–65), designed to deliver a four-megaton nuclear warhead over 5,000 mi (8,000 km) to targets in the former Soviet Union, were stored in underground silos but had to be raised to ground level and fueled for launch. By 1965 they had been replaced by the much larger Titan II, which could be launched directly from its silo. With a nine-megaton warhead, Titan II was the principal weapon in the land-based U.S. nuclear arsenal until the 1980s, when it was replaced by solid-fueled ICBMs (e.g., Minuteman missiles). NASA used the Titan II to launch Gemini spacecraft in the 1960s; deactivated Titan II missiles refurbished as space launchers continued to be used into the 21st century. The Titan IV, developed in the late 1980s, has larger engines to lift heavy space cargo such as that carried by the space shuttle. Coupled with the Centaur upper-stage vehicle, it is the largest and most powerful expendable launch vehicle in the U.S.

* * *

 any of a series of U.S. rockets that were originally developed as intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs; see rocket and missile system: Ballistic missiles (rocket and missile system)) but subsequently became important expendable space-launch vehicles.

      Titan I, the first in the series, was built by Martin Company (later Lockheed Martin Corporation) for the U.S. Air Force in the late 1950s. A two-stage ICBM fueled by kerosene and liquid oxygen, it was designed to deliver a four-megaton nuclear warhead to targets in the Soviet Union more than 8,000 km (5,000 miles) away. Between 1962 and 1965 several squadrons of Titan Is were operational at air force bases in the western United States. The missiles were stored underground in reinforced-concrete silos but had to be raised to ground level for launch and required a minimum of 15 to 20 minutes for fueling.

      By 1965 Titan I had been replaced by Titan II, a much larger ICBM (approximately 30 metres [100 feet] long) that could be launched directly from its silo and was fueled by internally stored hypergolic fuels (self-igniting liquids such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide). Tipped with a nine-megaton warhead—the most powerful nuclear explosive ever mounted on a U.S. delivery vehicle—and stationed at bases in the central and western United States, Titan II was the principal weapon in the land-based U.S. nuclear arsenal until it was replaced by more-accurate solid-fueled ICBMs such as Minuteman (Minuteman missile). The last Titan IIs were deactivated between 1982 and 1987. Converted Titan IIs were used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as launchers for Gemini manned spacecraft during the 1960s. After its deactivation as an ICBM, Titan II was modified by Lockheed Martin to launch satellites for U.S. government use.

      Titan III comprised a set of space launchers based on Titan II. To obtain greater thrust, most of the rockets employed two additional strap-on boosters burning solid propellants, one on either side of the liquid-fuel first stage. A variety of upper stages, such as Agena or Centaur, were mounted atop the second stage in cases when further maneuverability or escape from Earth orbit was required. The most successful vehicle in the set was the 50-metre (160-foot) Titan III-E/Centaur combination, which during the 1970s launched the Viking, Voyager, and Helios space probes to Mars, the giant outer planets, and the Sun, respectively.

      Titan IV, developed from Titan III in the late 1980s, was built with larger and more-powerful engines in order to lift heavy payloads such as those capable of being carried by the U.S. space shuttle. Boosted by two solid-propellant strap-ons and often combined with an upper stage such as Centaur, it became the largest expendable launch vehicle (approximately 60 metres [200 feet]) employed in the United States. The Titan IV series lifted a number of civilian and military satellites into space, including the Cassini-Huygens probe to Saturn in 1997. The last Titan IV—and the last rocket of the Titan series—blasted off in 2005.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Titan (rocket family) — Infobox Aircraft name=Titan family caption=The Titan rocket family. type=Expendable launch system with various applications manufacturer=Glenn L. Martin Company designer= first flight=1958 12 20 [cite web url=http://www.geocities.com/titan 1… …   Wikipedia

  • Titan — most often refers to: *A class of deities who preceded the Olympians in Greek mythology. See Titan (mythology). *The largest satellite of the planet Saturn, named after the Greek characters. See Titan (moon). Mythology*Helios, Greek sun deity… …   Wikipedia

  • Titan IIIE — Titan IIIE …   Википедия

  • Titan II GLV — Titan II GLV …   Википедия

  • Titan IV — infobox rocket caption = Launch of a Titan IVB launch vehicle. (USAF)name = Titan IV function = Heavy expendable launch system manufacturer = Lockheed Martin country origin = United Statescpl = $432 million (USD) cpl year = 1999height = 44m alt… …   Wikipedia

  • rocket and missile system — ▪ weapons system Introduction       any of a variety of weapons systems that deliver explosive warheads to their targets by means of rocket propulsion.       Rocket is a general term used broadly to describe a variety of jet propelled missiles… …   Universalium

  • Titan IIIB — infobox rocket caption = Titan 23B launching KH 8 reconnaissance satellite from Vandenberg AFB, CA. (USAF) name = Titan IIIB function = Medium launch vehicle manufacturer = Martin country origin = United States height = 45m alt height = 147.00 ft …   Wikipedia

  • Titan II — The Titan II was an Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and space launcher developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from the earlier Titan I missile.Infobox rocket name = Titan II caption = Launch of a Titan II ICBM from underground silo… …   Wikipedia

  • Titan III — infobox rocket imsize = 175 caption = MOL mockup launch by a Titan IIIC on Nov. 3, 1966 from LC41 Cape Canaveral, FL. (USAF) name = Titan IIIC function = Medium/Heavy launch vehicle manufacturer = Martin country origin = United States height = 42 …   Wikipedia

  • Titan (cohete) — Para otros usos de este término, véase Titán. Titan II Lanzamiento de un Titan II desde un silo. (USAF) …   Wikipedia Español

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”