Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry

Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry
born , Feb. 15, 1874, Kilkea, County Kildare, Ire.
died Jan. 5, 1922, Grytviken, South Georgia

British explorer.

In 1901 he joined Robert Falcon Scott's expedition to the Antarctic. He returned to Antarctica in 1908 and led a sledging party to within 97 mi (156 km) of the pole. In 1914 he led the British Trans-Antarctic Expedition, which planned to cross Antarctica via the South Pole. His expedition ship Endurance was caught in pack ice and drifted for 10 months before being crushed. Shackleton and his crew drifted on ice floes for another five months until they reached Elephant Island. He and five others sailed 800 mi (1,300 km) to South Georgia Island to get help, then he led four relief expeditions to rescue his men. Shackleton died on South Georgia at the outset of another Antarctic expedition.

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▪ British explorer
born , Feb. 15, 1874, Kilkea, County Kildare, Ire.
died Jan. 5, 1922, Grytviken, South Georgia
 British Antarctic (Antarctica) explorer who attempted to reach the South Pole.

 Educated at Dulwich College (1887–90), Shackleton entered the mercantile marine service in 1890 and became a sublieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve in 1901. He joined Captain Robert Falcon Scott's British National Antarctic (Discovery) Expedition (1901–04) as third lieutenant and took part, with Scott and Edward Wilson, in the sledge journey over the Ross Ice Shelf when latitude 82° 16′ 33″ S was reached. His health suffered, and he was invalided out on the supply ship Morning in March 1903. In January 1908 he returned to Antarctica as leader of the British Antarctic (Nimrod) Expedition (1907–09). The expedition, prevented by ice from reaching the intended base site in Edward VII Peninsula, wintered on Ross Island, McMurdo Sound. A sledging party, led by Shackleton, reached within 97 miles (156 km) of the South Pole, and another, under T.W. Edgeworth David, reached the area of the South Magnetic Pole. Victoria Land Plateau was claimed for the British crown. On his return Shackleton was knighted and was made a companion of the Royal Victorian Order.

      In March 1914 the British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–16) left England under Shackleton's leadership. He planned to cross Antarctica from a base on the Weddell Sea to McMurdo Sound, via the South Pole, but the expedition ship Endurance was beset off Caird coast and drifted for 10 months before being crushed in the pack ice. The members of the expedition then drifted on ice floes for another five months and finally escaped in boats to Elephant Island in the South Shetland Islands. Shackleton and five others sailed 800 miles (1,300 km) to South Georgia in a whale boat and then made the first crossing of the island, to seek aid. He led four relief expeditions before succeeding in rescuing his men from Elephant Island. A supporting party, the Ross Sea party led by A.E. Mackintosh, sailed in Aurora and laid depots as far as latitude 83° 30′ S for the use of the Trans-Antarctic party; three of this party died on the return journey.

      Shackleton died at Grytviken, South Georgia, at the outset of the Shackleton-Rowett Antarctic Expedition in Quest; his exertions in raising funds to finance his expeditions and the immense strain of the expeditions themselves wore out his strength.

      Shackleton's publications are The Heart of the Antarctic (1909) and South (1919), the latter an account of the Trans-Antarctic Expedition.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry — (15 feb. 1874, Kilkea, condado de Kildare, Irlanda–5 ene. 1922, Grytviken, Georgia del Sur). Explorador británico. En 1901 se unió a la expedición de Robert Falcon Scott a la Antártida. Regresó allí en 1908 y dirigió un grupo en trineo que llegó… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Shackleton,Sir Ernest Henry — Shack·le·ton (shăkʹəl tən), Sir Ernest Henry. 1874 1922. British explorer who led a number of expeditions to the Antarctic and wrote Heart of the Antarctic (1909). * * * …   Universalium

  • Ernest Henry Shackleton — Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (* 15. Februar 1874 in Kilkea, County Kildare, Irland; † 5. Januar 1922 in Grytviken, Südgeorgien) war ein britischer Polarforscher …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ernest Henry Shackleton — Ernest Shackleton Pour les articles homonymes, voir Shackleton. Ernest Shackleton …   Wikipédia en Français

  • henry — /hen ree/, n., pl. henries, henrys. Elect. the SI unit of inductance, formally defined to be the inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive force of one volt is produced when the electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at a …   Universalium

  • Henry — /hen ree/, n. 1. Joseph, 1797 1878, U.S. physicist. 2. O., pen name of William Sydney Porter. 3. Patrick, 1736 99, American patriot, orator, and statesman. 4. Cape, a cape in SE Virginia at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. 5. Fort. See …   Universalium

  • Henry — ► sustantivo masculino ELECTRICIDAD Denominación del henrio en la nomenclatura internacional. IRREG. plural henrys * * * henrio o henry (de J. Henry, físico inglés) m. Fís. Unidad de inductancia eléctrica en el Sistema Internacional. * * * …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • henry — ► sustantivo masculino ELECTRICIDAD Denominación del henrio en la nomenclatura internacional. IRREG. plural henrys * * * henrio o henry (de J. Henry, físico inglés) m. Fís. Unidad de inductancia eléctrica en el Sistema Internacional. * * * henry …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • sir — /serr/, n. 1. a respectful or formal term of address used to a man: No, sir. 2. (cap.) the distinctive title of a knight or baronet: Sir Walter Scott. 3. (cap.) a title of respect for some notable personage of ancient times: Sir Pandarus of Troy …   Universalium

  • Ernest — /err nist/, n. a male given name: from an Old English word meaning vigor, intent. * * * (as used in expressions) Ernest Banks Bevin Ernest Bloch Ernest Borlaug Norman Ernest Boulanger Georges Ernest Jean Marie Chausson Amédée Ernest Durocher Leo… …   Universalium

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